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GVPT 306 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - International Law, Greenhouse Gas, Climate Change


Department
Government and Politics
Course Code
GVPT 306
Professor
Hadden
Study Guide
Midterm

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GVPT 306
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018

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GVPT 306 Lecture 1: Syllabus
The World is Changing
o How? Why?
o There are five important global macro-trends:
Population growth
Population in 1900: ~1 billion
Population today: ~ 7.5 billion
Global energy use
More vehicles being driven further
More goods being bought
Greenhouse gas emissions
Global growth has been uneven
Most emissions come from a handful of wealthy industrial
countries such as the United States
The consequences of environmental problems disproportionately
affect developing countries
Water usage
Drinking water, irrigation, industrial applications, dams, etc.
International disputes about water rights, upriver or downriver
pollution, and damming
About half of the world experiences water scarcity
Household consumption
Larger houses, more cars per household, more household goods
being bought
Consumption is concentrated in the developed world
o Motivating Examples
Three Gorges Dam (China)
Largest dam in the world in terms of capacity
Chinese development plan seeks to lift millions out of poverty and
increase economic growth
o China is also building coal power plants, solar farms, and
wind farms.
The dam does not generate greenhouse emissions.
One and a half million people displaced due to the redirection of its
river.
The dam decreases the stability of the land around it as well as
disrupting the flow of the river.
Deforestation (Global)
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Concentrated in Brazil and Indonesia, where there are large
rainforests.
Palm oil plantations are built on clear-cut land, with the timber
created not necessarily being used.
o Palm oil is used in many consumer products, such as
shampoos and cosmetics.
Deforestation plays into Brazilian and Indonesian development
goals.
Forests are often burned rather than cut, releasing greenhouse
gases and reducing the forest’s ability to act as a carbon sink.
Automobiles (Global)
The U.S. has added 3.6 additional cars each year, on average, since
1950.
More cars lead to more traffic.
o Traffic problems affect local environments by forcing
jurisdictions to increase the size of roads.
o Cars generate greenhouse gas emissions and particulates.
Domestic policies in the U.S. have been introduced to curb
automobile emissions, especially in California.
o Vehicle emissions standards are currently in flux.
Consequences
o Changes to atmosphere and biosphere
Endangered species
Ozone depletion
o Depletion of natural resources
Water scarcity
Deforestation
o From Holocene to Anthropocene
Changes in the last century are extreme enough to begin thinking about
today as a new geologic era.
Anthropocene = (hu)man-controlled
o What consequences might we expect for international relations?
Resource depletion will lead to economic conflict and protectionism.
Exacerbation of the developed country-developing country divide
Increased competition for resources
Tensions among the Arctic countries regarding navigation and
resource rights
Possible resource wars or internal conflicts
Refugee crises as regions become uninhabitable, leading to mass
migration.
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