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Study Guide

[BIL 150] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (43 pages long!)


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIL 150
Professor
Diresta Dan
Study Guide
Final

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UM
BIL 150
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter 1
1. Evolution
a. Process of change on earth
b. Responsible for all unity and diversity on earth
c. Explains evolutionary adaptation (organisms match their environment)
2. Biological Organization
a. Biosphere- all life and places where life exists on earth
b. Ecosystem- all living things in an area and all the nonliving components of the
given area
c. Community- all the organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem
d. Population- all the individuals of a species living in a specified area
e. Organism- individual living thing
f. Organs & Organ Systems- carry out particular functions in an organism
g. Tissues- group of cells working together, preforming a specialized function
h. Cells- perform life processes (specialized in multicellular organisms)
i. Organelles- functional components of cells
j. Molecules- chemical structures made of atoms
3. Reductionism
a. Reduces complex systems into simpler components to understand
4. Emergent Properties
a. New properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to
the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases
b. Are seen when you put the pieces together, kind of like the opposite of
reductionism
c. Systems biology- the exploration of a biological system by analyzing the
interactions among its parts
5. Structure & Function
a. Correlation between structure and function
6. Cell
a. Smallest unit of organization that can perform all activities required for life
b. All cells have a membrane that regulates what goes in and out of the cell
c. 2 types of cells
i. prokaryotic- bacteria, archaea, no nucleus, much smaller than eukaryotic
ii. eukaryotic- membrane enclosed organelles, plants, animals
7. DNA
a. Hold genetic material in the form of genes
b. Double helix, ATCG
c. Sequence of nucleotides along a gene is transcribed into RNA, which is then
translated into amino acids which are then linked and form proteins
d. Gene expression- process where the info from a gene directs the manufacture of
a cellular product
e. Differences in organisms are reflected in differences in their genome
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f. Uses of systems biology
Genomics- study of whole sets of genes in one or more species
Proteomics- study of sets of proteins and their properties (proteome- entire
set of proteins expressed by a cell or group of cells)
g. Research developments
high-throughput technology- analyzing many biological samples rapidly
bioinformatics- using computers to store, organize, and analyze lots of data
formation of interdisciplinary research teams
8. Transfer and Transformation of Energy and Matter
a. Energy flows through an ecosystem, starting as light and usually ending as heat
b. Chemicals are recycled in an ecosystem
9. Feedback Regulation
a. A process regulated by output or end product
b. Negative feedback- accumulation of a product slows its production (ex. Glucose
after eating results in release of insulin to decrease blood glucose levels)
c. Positive feedback- accumulation of a product speeds up its production (ex.
Platelets used in clotting)
10. Classification of Life- Taxonomy
a. Domains
I. Bacteria- prokaryotic
II. Archaea- prokaryotic, extremophiles
III. Eukarya- eukaryotes, 3 Kingdoms: Plantae, Fungi, Animalia (& protists)
11. Charles Darwin
a. Descent with modification- species arose from ancestors that differed from them
b. Natural selection- evolutionary mechanism for descent with modification,
environment selects the traits best suited to live there
c. 3 observations: 1. Organisms in a population have differences in traits, 2. A
population produces more offspring than will survive to produce their own
offspring, 3. Species suit their environments (are adapted)
12. Scientific Methods
a. Scientific inquiry- make observations, collect data, and use inductive reasoning to
draw a conclusion, which can be developed into a testable hypothesis
b. Deductive reasoning- makes predictions that can be used to test hypotheses
c. Controlled experiments- demonstrate the effect of one variable on a group
d. Theory- supported by a large body of evidence
e. Results must be repeatable
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