BIL 250 Study Guide - Final Guide: Restriction Enzyme, Morphogen, GynandromorphismExam
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BIL 250 – Spring 2019 Krempels
Study Guide for Exam V (non-cumulative section)
Remember: This isn’t a substitute for your notes or text. Anything covered in class is fair game, even if it accidentally
didn’t make it to the study guide. Text readings on material we covered in class should be considered mandatory.
You do NOT need to memorize equations. Any equations you need will be provided on the exam. Just be able to
recognize them and enter the appropriate numbers.
You may bring a simple calculator to the exam. No graphing/data storing calculators allowed.
When reviewing the notes, always refresh your browser to be sure you have the most recent updates.
Genetics of Development
Know the meaning/significance of:
gamete ontogeny cell fate blastula archenteron
zygote morphogenesis gene complex gastrula determinate cleavage
totipotent cell differentiation developmental field blastomere indeterminate cleavage
pluripotent paracrine signaling fate refinement blastopore gynandromorph
multipotent mosaic chimera deuterostome protostome
What is a “genetic toolkit”?
Understand how gene regulation at various levels can be used to direct embryo development.
Understand how developmental genes and their products affect developmentally downstream gene expression and products
Know the meaning/significance/function/role of:
embryo “rescue” housekeeping genes blastoderm segment polarity genes homeo box
germline cells maternal effect morphogen metamerism
somatic cells patterning genes gap genes homeo domain
stem cells syncytium pair rule genes Hox genes
Know the meaning/significance/function/role of these in embryo development:
transcription factors translational repressors
signal transduction initiators splice factors
Understand how concentration gradients of morphogens can direct antero-posterior axis and dorsoventral axis patterning.
(You don’t need to memorize the names of the genes and products, but be able to read a figure telling you how the
concentration gradients change with respect to one another and how the products are transcription factors that affect
each other’s manufacture)
Understand the basic difference between maternally-required vs. zygotically required gene products
Understand the basic mechanism of sex determination in Drosophila (as a model for other systems like this one).
Understand the roles of the following in Drosophila sex determination:
SXL protein early and late sxl promoters
numerator dimers transformer mRNA splicing
denominator dimers doublesex mRNA splicing
Review the evolution of the Y chromosome in mammals. Understand the roles of the sry and Od genes.
Understand the role of the cytoskeleton in transporting and anchoring maternal effect mRNA and other products related to
Understand what is meant by a “default” pathway in embrhyo development.
• Which is the default pathway in mammal sex determination: male or female?
• What about in Drosophila sex determination?
• What about in determination of dorsal vs. ventral axis of a Drosophila embryo?
Understand the early differentiation between somatic and germline cell lineages in animals and how this is accomplished.
Know the meaning/significance of:
species gene pool organic evolution reproductive isolation
population physiological adaptation microevolution
deme evolutionary adaptation macroevolution
Know the difference between an evolutionary adaptation and a physiological adaptation, and how both are
related—at some level—to the evolutionary history of the species in which they occur.
Know what is meant by polymorphism in a population at various levels (morphological, chromosomal,
immunological, etc.) and be able to recognize examples of each of these.
Know the meaning/significance/characteristics of:
restriction site satellite single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)
restriction endonuclease minisatellite (synonymous, non-synonymous, neutral)
tandem repeats microsatellite haplotype
variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) heterozygosity
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