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MSC 230 Midterm: exM 2 review MB

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Marine Science
MSC 230
Glynn Peter

18:02 Mandibulates Have distinct head 5 paired appendages decapods shrimp, crill amphipods and copepods eating appendages are mandibles basically go back and forth and chop range of morphologies but have this common attribute be aware of different forms! Echinoderms Spiny skin Starfish and close relatives Calicerates and mandibulates opposing – have rigid structure reproduction has unique larvae – have separate sexes and a planktonic stage Chordates Closely related to vertebrates Have anatomical features that are common to vertebrate Notochord – analogous to back bone Hollow nerve tube – analogous to spinal column/cord Gill slits – do not have true gills like fish Tail that extends past anus Tunicates, cephalochordates Sea squirts (benthic) salps and larvaceans (pelagic) Know the difference between these groups Fishes (vertebrates): Jawless 2 major groups – those that lack jaws ( cartilaginous skeletons) do not have true developed gills, but rather developed pouches that allow for gas exchange do not have scales no vertebrae lampreys and hagfish agnathans Jawed Fish Most familiar with Cartilaginous skeleton Those that have true boney skeletons Anterioir gill arches Open and close mouth – pump water actively for water exchange over their gills Greater motion Major adaptation Exchange of oxygen and get rid of CO2 Cartilagenous Fish Chimaeras – deep ocean group Rays and skates are in with sharks Spiral valve – break up food and allow the organism to get nutrients out of it Eat food by swallowing whole Do not have gas bladder but rather a liver that has lot sof lipids to allow for buoyancy Placoid scales same overall body plan as boney fish skates and rays differentiaton rays moves tips of fins up and down skates passing waves along muscles around outer edge pushing water back and forth LOOK AT THIS SLIDE TO DIFFERENTIATE THE TWO Differences between cartilaginous fish and Osmoregulation Challenge to living in salt water – get rid of salts or somehow counteract them to obtain balance Sharks have unique approach Blood is hypertonic – UREA and TMAO – derivative of urea Allows them to gain water from osmosis Salt excreting glands Large kidneys compared to other large fish Expanded Allows them to reabsorb urea Epell salt through gills as well Bony fish don’t concentrate urea or TMAO They just get rid of salt Relatively small kidneys and urine Water loss by osmosis Drink salt water and then get rid of salt Excreted through gills Marine Reptiles and Birds Reptiles Amniotic egg Young can live off of yold Wast is kept in another membrane bound wast Another membrane allows for gas exchange Circulatory systems Mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood even though there are 3 chambers Not until you have 4 chambers do you have separation Each entry brings greater motility Salt Glands Have to get rid of salt since they feed in the ocean Marine reptiles excrete salt close to the nose Sodium cholirde concentrate and release it Important feature because if they didn’t have it they would overload on salt (sodium concentration in sea water is 500mmM) retiles typically have concentration higher in sea water To keep it from getting to high they have to expel it Loss of metabolism if it gets to high Higher than surrounding sea water Sea Snakes Relatively limited number of htem Well adapted to life in ocean Actively come to surface to find fresh water Actively can detect when it is raingin to get fresh water Internally they have on elong thin lung Have oxygen exchange through skin Found in the middle of Indian Ocean Sea Birds 4 chambered heart major adaptions to keep them in flight taking in air Shore Birds Varioud morphologies Depth that birds can get their food based on beak Mammals Have hair almost all to insulate body Produce milk Consistency varies greatly Placenta Pinnipeds Seals and walruses Two major groups Eared seals External ear True seals Lack external ear Have other differences as well All have 4 limbs the eared seals are much more flexble In terms of turning their body Sea lions can move across land much easier than earless seals All predators nad carnivores All come to land to mate and give birth and molt (once and year) Few populations are in danger from being hunted int eh past and some has lost habitiat due to human development Walruses Closer to true seals than eared seals Adaptions Diving 0 how they animals can spend so much time underwater How to make it easier for human diving based on their adaptations All come to surface and exhale Qhen when inhale they sequester much more oxygen concentration more than we could every do When they dive their blood gets redistributed to areas wher
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