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BIOL 1543 Midterm: exam 2 study guide (CH 8, 10, 11)

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University of Arkansas
BIOL 1543
John Chadwick

POB Exam 2 Study Guide Molecular Biology of the Gene (10.210.9, 10.1110.16) I. 10.2: DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides Unique DNA properties: capacity to store genetic information, copy it, and pass it from generation to generation DNA and RNA are nucleic acids consisting of long chains of nucleotides One of the two DNA strands is a DNA polynucleotide (nucleotide polymer chain) Each DNA nucleotide type has a different nitrogencontaining base: Adenine (A) Cytosine (C) Thymine (T) Guanine (G) Nucleotides can occur in a polynucleotide in any sequence Nucleotide is composed of: nitrogenous base fivecarbon sugar phosphate group Nucleotides are joined together by a sugarphosphate backbone RNA is also a polymer of nucleotides RNA differs from DNA: uses the sugar ribose has nitrogenous base Uracil (U) instead of Thymine (T) single stranded II. 10.3: DNA is a doublestranded helix 1952 HersheyChase experiment convinced most biologists that DNA stored genetic information DNA structure: James D. Watson Francis Crick doublehelix Each nitrogenous base has protruding functional groups that can best form hydrogen bonds with just one appropriate partner complementary (A)(T) (G)(C) Twisted rope ladder analogy for doublehelix structure: side ropes represent sugarphosphate backbones wooden rungs represent pairs of nitrogenous bases joined by H bonds CG pair functional groups form 3 H bonds AT pair functional groups form 2 H bonds The sequence of bases can vary in countless ways and genes have a unique order of nucleotides or base sequence WatsonCrick model gave new meaning to genes and chromosomes chromosome theory of inheritance III. 10.4: DNA replication depends on specific base pairing Once the 2 parental strands separate, each strand becomes a template for the assembly of the complementary strand A supply of free nucleotides available in nucleus
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