PS 297 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Common-Pool Resource, Garrett Hardin, Market Failure

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Published on 19 Oct 2017
School
University of Oregon
Department
Political Science
Course
PS 297
Key Concepts (definitions and examples)
Tragedy of the Commons (by Garrett Hardin)
Because that individuals are selfish to maximize their personal gains, those common but limited
resources will ultimately be depleted through their collective action.
Solutions:
o Change social norms (i.e. beliefs, values)
o Coercion (i.e. taxes, regulations/laws)
Regulation in public property systems
Assumes authority to impose solution
o Privatization
Individualize incentives to conserve resources (changing incentives)
Free-Rider Problem
Individual members of a group who will be benefited from the supple will stand to be benefited
even more if others make the contributions needed to cover the cost of the supply.
Individuals who make no contributions but take advantage of a common pool resources without
payig for it are the free-riders.
Example: Someone uses street lights but does not pay taxes
Collective Action Problem
Members of a group make a seemingly rational individual choice that results in an undesirable
outcome for the community.
Example: Parties will be worse off by producing public goods because it is costly and benefit
everyone, so the individual will/can free ride.
Common Pool Resources
Rival but non-excludable resources owned and managed collectively by a community/society
rather than by individuals.
More susceptible to the Tragedy of the Commons because of their rival and non-excludable
nature.
Examples: Fisheries and forests
Public Goods
Non-rival and non-excludable goods/services that are provided without profit to all members of
a society
Examples: Environmental protection (clean air, water, sustainable land use)
Open Access Problems
The problem with open access is that everyone can use a common pool resource/public good
because they are allowed to.
Perpetrators are also the victims, which the problem is inherent in the activity.
Solutions require of reducing the level of activity.
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Examples: Loss values of the livestock because as soon as someone comes in and adds more
animals to the grazing lands or takes bunch of fish out of the water it will impact the other
livestock or the party themselves.
Upstream-Downstream Problems
Activities are causing an unintended by-product that is harmful, where the perpetrators are not
the victims.
Solutions require of changing of activity, and the success of which is depends on the nature of
the power relationships that exist.
Examples: the Klamath River Basin case study
ICDP (Integrated Conservation and Development Project)
It merges conservation of natural resources with local development in less-developed countries.
Tend to confront rural communities with new incentives.
Examples: the Loma Alta case
IPAT Framework
Impact = Population x Affluence x Technology
o Impact: Environmental harm
o Population: Number of people
o Affluence (ability to consume): $/person
o Technology: Impact/$
Market Liberal Approach
Focus:
o Economies
Global Environmental Crises:
o No, some inevitable problems but overall science, $ and technology are improving the
environment
Cause of Problems:
o Poverty; Weak economic growth; Market failures; Poor government policy
Globalization Impact:
o Foster economic growth to improve environment
Way Forward:
o Promote growth and alleviate poverty; Globalize
Bio-environmental Approach
Focus:
o Ecosystem
Global Environmental Crisis:
o Near or beyond carrying capacity; Ecology crisis
Cause of Problems:
o Humana instinct to overfill ecological space by overpopulation; excessive growth
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Document Summary

Individual members of a group who will be benefited from the supple will stand to be benefited even more if others make the contributions needed to cover the cost of the supply. Individuals who make no contributions but take advantage of a common pool resources without payi(cid:374)g for it are the (cid:862)free-riders. (cid:863: example: someone uses street lights but does not pay taxes. Common pool resources: rival but non-excludable resources owned and managed collectively by a community/society rather than by individuals, more susceptible to the tragedy of the commons because of their rival and non-excludable nature, examples: fisheries and forests. Public goods: non-rival and non-excludable goods/services that are provided without profit to all members of a society, examples: environmental protection (clean air, water, sustainable land use) It merges conservation of natural resources with local development in less-developed countries: tend to confront rural communities with new incentives, examples: the loma alta case.