Study guide- Quiz 1
What is psychopathology (Chapter 1, part 1)
I. Defining Abnormality
A. Using cultural norms to define abnormality—everything is relative to the
cultureimportant to consider the background and differentiation in norms.
B. Four D’s of for defining abnormality. Why is one alone not sufficient?
Dysfunction-- interference with the individual’s everyday life, but is not
sufficient to define abnormality (e.g. grieving the loss of a spouse)
Distress—behaviors and feeling that cause intense emotional pain to the
individual and those around them. People experience stress differently
Deviance—statistically rare behaviors (e.g. hearing voices when no one is
Dangerous—harm to self or others
C. Definition of abnormality—it is elusive, but there are several indicators:
• Subjective distress
• Statistical deviancy
• Violation of standards of society
• Social discomfort
• Irrationality or unpredictability
D. Problems with classification and diagnosis—lose personal information about
the person if we rely on categories, facilitates stigma, stereotyping, labeling,
fear of others opinions can reduce treatment seeking
II. Prevalence of mental illness
A. Prevalence and incidence as measures of mental illness
Prevalence—total number of cases in a population during any specified time period
Incidence—number of new cases in a given period of time
B. Prevalence estimates of serious mental illness--
C. Burden of mental illness across the lifespan—just under 50% of people will
experience mental disorder during the course of their lifetime Study guide- Quiz 1
Historical views of abnormal behavior (Chapter 2)
I. Pre-twentieth Century Views (we did not cover as much in class but you should
still know this section for the quiz; you will not be quizzed on specific dates or
very minute details in this section) superstition and supernatural to scientific
explanations. Exorcism from antisocial traits, religious rites, incantations,
A. Ancient Views (Greek, Roman, Chinese, and Middle Eastern) demons or
gods who took possession of a person, wrath/punishment of gods. “the lord
shall smite thee with madness”
B. Spread of Asylums— to alter the “imbalances” within the patients often
through harmful and demeaning methods. reform done by Dorothea Dix,
C. Humanitarian and Moral treatment—Pinel was in charge of a hospital in
Paris after the French Revolution—treated inmates with kindness and
consideration, took off their chains, provided sunny rooms. Similar treatment
to the Quakers and Tuke. Use of moral management soon replaced by the
mental hygiene movement
II. Modern Views
A. Deinstitutionalization (rationale, pros, cons)—shut down many mental
hospitals, sent people back into the community. Less isolated and shut out,
but the people still needed the help
B. Modern classification systems—DSM’s, pros and cons to categorizing the
Theories of Psychopathology (Chapter 3)
I. Diathesis stress models: emphases that when a risk factor meets a period of
intense stress, a disorder may emerge (no diathesis= no risk factor for emerging
o Biological factor (genes, brain abnormalities)
o Social factor (maladaptive upbringing)
o Psychological factor (maladaptive cognitions)
Diathesis + Stress = disorder
II. 5 Ps of Case Formulation
o Presenting—what patient is concerned about
o Predisposing—like the diathesis, what put them at risk?
o Precipitating—like the stress, why is it happening now?
o Perpetuating—what keeps the problem going? Study guide- Quiz 1
o Protective/positive—what are the strengths of the person/resources to draw on
III. Biological Views
A. Genetic vulnerability-- most mental disorders show at least some genetic
influence. Abnormalities in the structure or number of chromosomes can be
associated with major defects or disorders. (e.g. Down syndrome).
Polymorphisms can impact personality traits and mental disorders.
Vulnerabilities are almost always polygenic meaning they’re influenced by
multiple genes or multiple polymorphisms.
B. Brain dysfunction-- specific brain lesions with observable defects in brain
tissue. A primary cause of psychiatric disorder. Existing circuits can be
modified or new neural circuits can be generated. Through the
developmental systems approved we can see positive effects of enriched
environments pre and post birth.
C. Hormones and neurotransmitters—excess production and release of
neurotransmitter causes functional excess in levels. Problems in the
postsynaptic neurons also can create imbalance. Dysfunction and normal
processes are often terminated through deactivation or reuptake. For
example, dopamine and serotonin influence mood on imbalance can result in
depression. In addition, excess glutamate is associated with schizophrenia.
A. Psychodynamic and Developmental Views—Home of the unconscious
memory/mind—id, ego, superego—Freud believes that if these three have
unresolved problems there will be intrapsychic conflict that leads to mental
B. Fundamentals of psychoanalytic theory—
• Id is the source of instinctual drives and the first to appear in infancy
composed of life instincts (such a sexual nature, libido, emotional and
psychic energies of life) and death instincts (destructive forces that tend
towards aggression, destruction, and eventually death). Operates on the
pleasure principle and is the primary process thinking.
• Ego mediates between the demands of the id and the realities of the
external world. The secondary process thinking a.k.a. reality principle.
• Superego essentially what we refer to as the conscience, and the control