PSY 309 Quiz: Study Guide Quiz 1

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PSY 309
Nicholas Allen

Study guide- Quiz 1 Psychopathology 309 What is psychopathology (Chapter 1, part 1) I. Defining Abnormality A. Using cultural norms to define abnormality—everything is relative to the cultureimportant to consider the background and differentiation in norms. Cultural relativism B. Four D’s of for defining abnormality. Why is one alone not sufficient? Dysfunction-- interference with the individual’s everyday life, but is not sufficient to define abnormality (e.g. grieving the loss of a spouse) Distress—behaviors and feeling that cause intense emotional pain to the individual and those around them. People experience stress differently Deviance—statistically rare behaviors (e.g. hearing voices when no one is around) Dangerous—harm to self or others C. Definition of abnormality—it is elusive, but there are several indicators: • Subjective distress • Maladaptiveness • Statistical deviancy • Violation of standards of society • Social discomfort • Irrationality or unpredictability • Dangerousness D. Problems with classification and diagnosis—lose personal information about the person if we rely on categories, facilitates stigma, stereotyping, labeling, fear of others opinions can reduce treatment seeking II. Prevalence of mental illness A. Prevalence and incidence as measures of mental illness Prevalence—total number of cases in a population during any specified time period Incidence—number of new cases in a given period of time B. Prevalence estimates of serious mental illness-- C. Burden of mental illness across the lifespan—just under 50% of people will experience mental disorder during the course of their lifetime Study guide- Quiz 1 Psychopathology 309 Historical views of abnormal behavior (Chapter 2) I. Pre-twentieth Century Views (we did not cover as much in class but you should still know this section for the quiz; you will not be quizzed on specific dates or very minute details in this section)  superstition and supernatural to scientific explanations. Exorcism from antisocial traits, religious rites, incantations, A. Ancient Views (Greek, Roman, Chinese, and Middle Eastern) demons or gods who took possession of a person, wrath/punishment of gods. “the lord shall smite thee with madness” B. Spread of Asylums— to alter the “imbalances” within the patients often through harmful and demeaning methods. reform done by Dorothea Dix, Clifford Beers, C. Humanitarian and Moral treatment—Pinel was in charge of a hospital in Paris after the French Revolution—treated inmates with kindness and consideration, took off their chains, provided sunny rooms. Similar treatment to the Quakers and Tuke. Use of moral management soon replaced by the mental hygiene movement II. Modern Views A. Deinstitutionalization (rationale, pros, cons)—shut down many mental hospitals, sent people back into the community. Less isolated and shut out, but the people still needed the help B. Modern classification systems—DSM’s, pros and cons to categorizing the diagnoses Theories of Psychopathology (Chapter 3) I. Diathesis stress models: emphases that when a risk factor meets a period of intense stress, a disorder may emerge (no diathesis= no risk factor for emerging disorder) o Biological factor (genes, brain abnormalities) o Social factor (maladaptive upbringing) o Psychological factor (maladaptive cognitions) Diathesis + Stress = disorder II. 5 Ps of Case Formulation o Presenting—what patient is concerned about o Predisposing—like the diathesis, what put them at risk? o Precipitating—like the stress, why is it happening now? o Perpetuating—what keeps the problem going? Study guide- Quiz 1 Psychopathology 309 o Protective/positive—what are the strengths of the person/resources to draw on for recovery? III. Biological Views A. Genetic vulnerability-- most mental disorders show at least some genetic influence. Abnormalities in the structure or number of chromosomes can be associated with major defects or disorders. (e.g. Down syndrome). Polymorphisms can impact personality traits and mental disorders. Vulnerabilities are almost always polygenic meaning they’re influenced by multiple genes or multiple polymorphisms. B. Brain dysfunction-- specific brain lesions with observable defects in brain tissue. A primary cause of psychiatric disorder. Existing circuits can be modified or new neural circuits can be generated. Through the developmental systems approved we can see positive effects of enriched environments pre and post birth. C. Hormones and neurotransmitters—excess production and release of neurotransmitter causes functional excess in levels. Problems in the postsynaptic neurons also can create imbalance. Dysfunction and normal processes are often terminated through deactivation or reuptake. For example, dopamine and serotonin influence mood on imbalance can result in depression. In addition, excess glutamate is associated with schizophrenia. A. Psychodynamic and Developmental Views—Home of the unconscious memory/mind—id, ego, superego—Freud believes that if these three have unresolved problems there will be intrapsychic conflict that leads to mental disorder. B. Fundamentals of psychoanalytic theory— • Id is the source of instinctual drives and the first to appear in infancy composed of life instincts (such a sexual nature, libido, emotional and psychic energies of life) and death instincts (destructive forces that tend towards aggression, destruction, and eventually death). Operates on the pleasure principle and is the primary process thinking. • Ego mediates between the demands of the id and the realities of the external world. The secondary process thinking a.k.a. reality principle. • Superego essentially what we refer to as the conscience, and the control system. Als
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