[PSYCH 101] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 57 pages long Study Guide!

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6 Feb 2017
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PSYCH 101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Psych 101 lecture Jan 6 History of Psyhology
The science of psychology
o Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Science = objective approach to answer questions
Based on observable facts, data, and reliable methods
Behavior: observable, measurable states and actions
Mental processes---subjective states
Ex: thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, motives, etc.
Roots of psychology
o Greek philosopherssought to understand the origin of knowledge
Nativism (Plato)
Humans possess all knowledge at birth
Empiricism (Aristotle)
Senses are the source of knowledge
o Renaissance philosopherssought to understand relationship of mind and body
Desartes Dualis: the id is separate fro, ad otrols, the ody said I
think therefore I a
Hobbes: the mind is a function of the physical brain
o Structuralismstudies of the nervous system lead to discoveries that connect brain and
behavior
Wandt started the first psychology laoratory to study osiousess father of
oder psyhology
o Evolution and functionalism
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Darwin: physical structures are the result of advantageous variations that
improve reproductive fitness
James: behavior and mental processes must also serve an adaptive purpose
Origins and Perspectives of Modern Technology
o Clinical psychologythe study of physiological disorders and their treatment
Freud: pioneered the psychodynamic perspective
Focused on unconscious
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow: Developed humanistic psychology
Foused o a idiidual’s eed for safety, support, love, and fulfillment
o Behavio rismthe study of how the individual responds to the environment and learns
observable responses (No thoughts stuffONLY behavior)
Pavlov(physiologist): Pioneered the study of learning after his discovery of
classical conditioning
He rang a bell and dog salivated (his accidental discovery on
conditioning)
All about cues
John Watson: Emphasized the study of observable behaviors and outcomes
B. F. Skinner: Made significant contributions to behaviorism and learning theory
with myriad studies of animal behavior
o Cognitive psychologythe study of the mental processes involved in perception,
learning, memory, language, reason, and other mental processes
Gestalt psychologists: studies the processes of perception
Jean Piaget: studied the development of thought processes in children
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