[ANS 42] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 10 pages long Study Guide!

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7 Feb 2017
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ANS 42
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Vision (Cats)
1. Eye placement
a. Humans have their eye vision overlapping
i. Binocular vision: stereoscopic
1. Allows for depth perception
2. Around 120 degrees of binocular vision
ii. Also have visual field to see and interpret the environment around us
1. Environmental scanning
2. About 210 degrees of visual field
b. Cat’s ision
i. Binocular vision: 130 degrees
ii. Visual field: 285 degrees
c. Brachycephalic dog
i. Binocular vision: 250 degrees
ii. Visual field: 110 degrees
d. Dolichocephalic
i. Binocular vision: 80 degrees
ii. Visual field: 290 degrees
e. Sight hounds have elongated faces
i. For visual field for looking
f. Prey items usually have a large visual field to scan themselves
i. Eyes to the side
ii. Chameleons can move each eye independently
1. Good for spotting prey and predators
2. Vision Detection
a. Visual cells in the retina of the eye
b. Retina contains:
i. Cones: photoreceptors that function in bright light and detect color
1. Majority are in the center of the eye
ii. Rods: photoreceptors that function in dim light and detect gray, white, black
1. More peripheral
c. Dogs and cats have greater numbers of rods than cones
i. 3% while humans have 5%
3. Light detection
a. Nocturnal and can move efficiently in very dim environments
b. Have a Tapetum Lucidum
i. Behind the retina
ii. Mirror-like tissue, very reflective
iii. When light comes in, if it is not absorbed on the way in, it will bounce off the
Tapetum and re-hit the photoreceptors
iv. Allows the animal to acquire more light in dim situations
v. Causes eye-shine in animals
1. Cats are a golden color
2. Rait’s eyes ill shine red. So ill a hippo’s eyes.
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3. Ungulates have a more white eye-shine
4. However, not the same thing as red eye in photos
c. Nocturnals have a 130% better ability to see in the dim situations
i. Only reptile to have a Tapetum is the crocodile
4. Color detection
a. UC Santa Barbara study
i. Showed that dogs are not color blind
ii. Operant conditioning to have dogs push three panels that looked different
1. Two colors in the panels. Two of the same color, one different
2. Dogs trained to see which one was different and to push it
3. Adjusted for color intensity
a. Tested differential hues as well
4. They could detect blue, violet, white, but yellow, red, and orange were
the same
b. Humans have 3 types of cones
c. Dogs and cats have 2 types of cones
i. Can see colors except for the reds and the yellows as distinct
d. Birds have 5 types of cones
i. Can possibly see more colors than we do
ii. A large variety of plumage colors
e. Rodents don’t see the high intensity olors; ant see red
5. Humans can hear: 20 hertz 17khertz (hertz measure frequency)
a. Dogs: 20 hertz - 30 khertz
b. Cats: 20 hertz - 45 khertz
c. Rodents: 30 hertz 80 khertz
d. Bats: 13 khertz 130 khertz
e. Reptiles: 50 hertz 1500 hertz
6. Cats have good hearing due to the size of their heads
a. Polydactyl paws
i. Multiple toes on their paws
ii. Genetic condition prevalent in cats
7. Humans have not selected cats for their traits
a. Dogs are the most divergent species of the wolf due to humans wanting specific and
different traits
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