Section 3 Study Guide From Readings For Final
Brown, The Self, Chapter 6
A General Model of Self-Regulation
Three components of the self-regulation process
1. Goal Selection- (Expectancy-value) People select goals according to their
expectancy of reaching the goal, in conjunction with the positive value they place on
attaining the goal and they negative value they place on not attaining the goal. (Ex: A
person is more likely to adopt a goal if they believe they will be more likely to achieve it,
and if the negative results of not achieving it aren’t as impactful.)
2. Preparation for Action- After selecting a goal people gather information, construct
scenarios regarding possible outcomes, and engage in behavioral practice (rehearsal).
3. Cybernetic Cycle of Behavior- The study of how entities use information to
regulate their actions (control theory), this isn’t necessarily negative feedback or bad, it
means discrepancy reducing. (Ex: Thermostats attached to heaters control the heat in a
room, they keep the room at a constant temperature. This is a means of regulation)
è1. Initial behavior (run a mile) 2. Observe behavior (Time oneself) 3. Compare against
some standard (compare time against goal) 4. Expectancy (form an expectancy that
future behavior will reduce the discrepancy between present behavior and the standard)
5. Emotional reaction (react emotionally to discrepancy between performance and goal)
6. Behavioral adjustment (continue striving toward goal or quit).
Assumptions of expectancy-value models Four stages of TOTE: (side note: this can be applied towards any goal any person sets
1. Test- a phase in which a present value is compared against some relevant
standard (Ex: the current temperature in the room is compared with the desired
2. Operate- Phase in which an action is undertaken to bring the present value in
line with the standard (Ex: the heat comes on if the room temperature is below the
3. Test- Phase in which the new value is compared with the standard (Ex: the new
room temperature is compared with the desired temperature)
4. Exit (or quit)- phase which occurs when the desired goal is reached (Ex: the
furnace shuts off when the room reaches the selected temperature.)
Definition of high and low self-efficacy beliefs:
High self-efficiency- People think they have the ability to succeed at a task, to overcome
obstacles, and to reach their goals.
Low self-efficiency- People doubt their ability to succeed and do not believe they have
what it takes to reach their goals.
Putting the Self into Self-Regulation
Private self-consciousness- What we think of ourselves (Not sure if this is right)
Relationship between private self-consciousness, expectancies, and performance- After
comparing their performance with a relevant standard, people form an expectancy
regarding the likelihood that future efforts will meet with success, they then adjust their
performance. Applications to the Achievement Domain
Defensive pessimism- Defensive pessimists doubt their ability to succeed in the
future. Instead of imagining themselves doing well, they exaggerate their odds of failing
and dwell on all the ways things could go wrong. This does not mean that they adopt a
“so what” attitude, in fact this allows them to focus on potential problems and defend
against any possible negative outcomes.
Relationship between performance and learning goals and reactions to achievement
Performance goals- these people generally respond poorly to obstacles and setbacks.
They view poor performance as an indication that they lack ability and they quit.
Learning goals- show a different reaction, instead of attributing failure to a lack of ability,
they attribute it to insufficient effort or an ineffective strategy, they view setbacks as
challenges that need to be mastered.
Design, results, and conclusions of Amabile (1985): Design- randomly assigned
some students in a creative-writing class to focus on extrinsic reasons for writing (the
market for freelance writers is expanding, you enjoy public recognition). Another group
was led to focus on the intrinsic rewards associated with writing (You enjoy writing
because you like to express yourself, and you feel relaxed when writing). A third group
was given no instructions. Later all three groups of students wrote a poem, and the
poems were rated for creative expression by an independent set of judges.
Results- the students in the first group, the extrinsic group, were rated lower than the
other two groups.
Conclusion- Extrinsic motivation can stifle creativity Self-Regulation Failure
Transcendence- This occurs when individuals are able to see beyond the present
situation (which may offer immediate gratification) and focus upon more distant goals
involving desired self-images. (Ex: a person who focuses on the dangers of cancer from
smoking is using transcendence. He is looking to the future and ignoring the present
Relationship between deindividuation (lose their sense of individuality) and moral
behavior- deindividuation occurs most often in group settings. When someone is in a
state of low self-awareness they feel less obligated to act in accordance with social
Alcohol myopia- reduces their ability to think abstractly. Instead of focusing on
the general implication of their behavior, they focus on the immediate pleasures of the
action they are contemplating.
Choking- Occurs when individuals fail to perform at optimal levels under
conditions in which optimal performance is desired. This increased attention to oneself
leads people to compare their present behavior with a relevant standard and to think too
much about what they’re doing.
Brown, The Self, Chapter 7
The Nature of Self-Presentation
Reasons why people engage in self-presentation
1. Facilitate social interaction- Each person has a role to play, and the interaction
proceeds smoothly when these roles are enacted effectively. Certain sets of protocol are enabled in different situations. (Example: I am required to take my shoes off before
entering a home in Japan) *I may be wrong about this one
2. Gain material and social rewards- People strive to create impressions of
themselves in the minds of others in order to gain material or social rewards. (Ex: If
candy is a reward for good behavior, we will act in a certain way to receive the candy.
This is material gain.) (Ex: If we can to be liked, we will act in a certain way that appeals
to others so that they will like us. This is social reward.)
3. Self-construction- A means to convincing others of who we are is a way of
creating a particular identity for ourselves. (Ex: I act nice because that is what I think
people want to see, and in turn people think I am nice, therefore I am a nice person.)
Face work- people support, rather than undermine, one another’s public identities.
(Example: “I like your hair, those clothes are cute etc.” Even though I disagree with what
I said, this reduces the possibility of conflict and saves face for the other person.)
Self-symbolizing- this is the behavior associated with the self-construction. (Ex:
Because people think I am wealthy, therefore I am wealthy, I must dress the part.)
Social acuity- Perspective-taking ability. It is how we adopt the perspective of others and
infer what particular behaviors will give rise to a particular impression in their minds.
(Ex: If you want to convince someone that you are intelligent, you must figure out what
set of behaviors, actions are necessary to convince someone of it.)
Description of high self-monitors- There are two sets of self-monitors, the first which is
high self-monitors; These people regard themselves as highly pragmatic and flexible
people who strive to be the “right” person for everyone occasion. When entering a social
situation, they try to discern what the model or prototypic (defition: An original type, form, or instance serving as a basis or standard for later stages) person would do in that
Relationship between high self-monitoring and attitude-behavior congruence- High self-
monitors exhibit less congruence between their underlying attitudes and their public
behavior. (Ex: They might say or do things they don’t believe in if doing so seems like
the appropriate thing to do.)
Public self-consciousness- How aware people are of themselves as a social object, and
how much they think of their public appearance.
Difference between public self-consciousness and self-monitoring- People who score
high in public self-consciousness don’t necessarily try to be the right person for the
situation; they simply are highly aware of themselves in social situations. Whereas, self-
monitors strive to be the right person for the situation.
Creating Desired Impressions
Five self-presentation strategies: (Page 170 for the table)
Ingratiation- To get another person to like you. To do this we say and do
nice things for people, flatter, and display positive personal characteristics. (This may
backfire if the person you are trying to flatter is aware of your pretentiousness, however,
people want to believe they are likeable.)
Self-promotion- We seek to convince people that we are competent. This
is different from Ingratiation because in this we are not trying to get people to like us.
We are trying to get others to see us as intelligent, capable, and talented. Intimidation- Sometimes people want to be feared. Employers use this
most often to reduce complaints and demand for higher salary. Governments use this
Exemplification- People attempt to create the impression that they are
morally superior, virtuous, or righteou