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[BIO SCI 55] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 30 pages long Study Guide!
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIO SCI 55
Professor
R.Symanski

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UC-Irvine BIO SCI 55 MIDTERM EXAM STUDY GUIDE find more resources at oneclass.com Bio Sci 55 Lecture Notes (everything you need to know) • 1 child in US = 20 children in India “effective”- not numerical War in Syria, one week’s loss -1000 ppl • population- 20 mil • US- aprox 300 mil so effective loss = 15,000 (300/20 = 15, 15 x 1000) • 5x ppl lost than 9/11 Third World- rest of the world (sort of) 1st world- North America, western europe, australia, new zealand, japan, israel • industrialized, good health, high income, less ppl in agriculture, developed, “north" US dollar is (most) VALUABLE AF Canada pop- 35 mil Mexico- 126 mil Regions in a country • appalachian kentucky (3rd) • OC (1st) In a city • beverly hills • south LA 4th World- haiti, nicaragua SUPER POOR 2nd World (now obsolete)- political/economic label Hungary, Soviet Union, Poland TROPICS: higher the rainfall, less variability and vice versa biodiverse amazon, south america, brazil *we live in Mediterranean climate (ideal) bc warm, but no rain in summer ex: cape town, perth what is significance of the tropics? to biologist lots of biodiversity find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com good weather cancer capricorn GNP is related to resource consumption high GNP allows countries/regions to live beyond their means most of worlds population found in third world population growth rates are greatest in third world most of worlds biodiversity in 3rd world A theory is a set of interrelated statements (well confirmed hypotheses) with empirical examples carrying capacity (k) max number of organisms an environment can sustain, if over, we dead range of carrying capacity (2.5 to 40 billion) THE GLOBAL ECOLOGICAL CRISIS • liberal vs conservative ◦ what polls show • environmentalists • sierra club east/west • earth liberation front: radical terrorism • earth first ◦ do the ends justify the means? ◦ religious positions catholic church on birth control, carrying capacity ◦ post modern times trafficking in opinion thin on data; antiscientific? ◦ is science elitist? • consensus among scientists? • uncertainty of data: complex interactions in global warming issue • some republicans on global warming: myth, fantasy, won’t accept any data live in period of unprecedented change • has come about largely since industrial revolution steam engine, coal, science to technology previously: low population numbers, growth rates technological base low • the buffer is gone taxing of resource base find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com need for new ethic “ecoethics" phenomenal population growth increasing stress on resources population related technology related growth mania never enough, and idea increasing measure of all things good can we get “enough” energy? energy consumption in the US Rising expectations generally- THEY want what WEVE got needs culturally created planned obsolescence role of advertising indicators of change global warming- earth heating up, carbon emissions human induced climatic changes asia emits lots of carbon dioxide, europe/north america extinctions going on all the time (natural rate) unnatural: greatest since the age of dinosaurs, now the “sixth extinction" unnamed species everywhere being lost, esp in the tropics loss of biodiversity and extinctions due to population growth due to consumption increasing due to corruption • population pyramid- significance of 16/17 year olds- when they grow, their group does • in tropics- the amazon, southeast asia INDONESIA, central africa • “The West” - CA, WASH, IDAHO, MONTANA, UTAH , WYOMING, ARIZONA, NEW MEX, COLORADO • biggest conservation issue in the West- WATER • we take a lot of water out the colorado river, farming takes most of it (~80%) bc they have power The Scientific Method • use hypothesis- educated guess as to relationship bt two or more variables
 • collect data to test hypothesis • be as objective as possible- consider ALL data that even might counter hypothesis find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com objectivity- randomization, sampling methods use quantitative data • Try to FALSIFY hypothesis- human tendency to seek data that agrees w hypothesis • Use the null hypothesis (no relationship!) aim is to REJECT this why? bc we may not have considered all the factors that account for heart attacks all knowledge is TENTATIVE REJECTING NULL HYPOTHESIS MEANS WE TENTATIVELY ACCEPT HYPOTHESIS • facts! and data! • science as a process that creates a “product" • Diff bt a theory and hypothesis? • science and skepticism- correcting mistakes • junk science/belief statements • diff bt natural sciences and social sciences ex: more obese = more likely heart attack need to find out weight (male/female), ppl dying of heart attacks find obese ppl who have few heart attacks or later in life independent variable- one that causes change • Industrial revolution to present (population growth increased a lot) ◦ population increases more dramatically as death rates fall, life span increases ◦ end of the 19th century world pop passes 1 billion! ◦ reliance on steam power ◦ use of fossil fuels, oil, natural gas ◦ applications of science to technology ◦ increasing urbanization ◦ increased use of natural resources ◦ frontier mentality - resources are inexhaustible (austraila says shoot whatever moves! not humans) • demographic transition: modeling change through time 1- high birth rate high early death rate (fluctuate) 2- declining death rates and high birth rates 3- declining birth and low death 4- low death rates low birth rates total pop eventually levels off Sweden- transition occurred over 150 wish years, ,Mexico < 100, china- 30, India? age pyramids: looks like a triangle- rapid growth lots of young ppl find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com slow growth- “weak pyramid”, fat bulge in middle lol no growth- tree trunk World’s largest countries (millions) in 2010 China - 1340 India - 1180 US - 310 Indonesia - 230 Brazil - 190 Pakistan - 160 In 2050 projections India - 1600 China - 1400 US - 420 Pakistan - 330 Indonesia - 320 Nigeria - 310 ***where will human pop plateau? 2150 The GLOBAL ECOLOGICAL CRISIS • depletion of the ozone layer, antarctic ozone hole • ozone layer surrounds the entire earth • UV-B (in ozone layer), UV-A (goes to earth) • ozone molecules protect life against UV-B that increases skin cancer, cataracts, affects immune system, damages plant and marine life • montreal protocol- lil disagreement among nations, ozone later decreasing • Ozone damage from aerosols, AC, refrigeration, solvents/peticides, CFCs Skin cancer in the US • more than 1 mil cases of skin cancer annually • 1 in 5 americans will develop some form of skin caner during their lifetime • more than 11,000 melanomas are diagnosed every year (one american dies fr this almost every hour) • more than 75 percent of skin cancer deaths are fr melanoma • 700% increase in the last 50 years Poisoning a california lake: the case of lake davis • Fortola in nor cal • significance of lake- winter/summer tourist area, retirement community • the alien pike find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com ◦ 1994- presence of northern pike ◦ competitor with trout ◦ fear of spread to other lakes ◦ impact on sacramento river king salmon? ◦ how did PIKE get into the lake? ◦ solutions past and present poison are with piscicide used first at frenchman’s lake 1991 slow recovery ◦ concerns: pike already in sac river, impact on the local water supply, local economy, no good 
“proof” of impact, no voice given to locals town meetings- behavior of officials,reactions town and small in-home meetings bv towns mobilize restrining iorfers against state signatures on petiitons threats: lets blow up the dam! make a “contract: lets boycott local store owners who sided w gov the state acts- “fish out” on labor day 1997- 57 pike caught numerous game wardens, SWAT TEAM, highway patrol poisoning of lake 11 to kill a lake ◦ killed thousands of rainbow trout, bulkheads, trout ◦ hundreds of northern pike • AFTERMATH: smell and people get sick, no traces of poison in water, slow recovery ◦ THE PIKE ARE BACK • community split on what to do ◦ leave alone? ◦ blast out lake w explosives? ◦ use barrier nets and electrofishing? ◦ inevitable restocking? • LESSONS ◦ power of the state “little guy” impotent public relations problems role of inertia- trout “good”, pike ”bad”-why?? role of politics an economics facts determined by POWER • exotic or invasive species • EX: GOLDEN EAGLE • rabbits in australia- european colonization find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com ◦ found outside native environments ◦ majority do not thrive ◦ some survive at the expense of natives ◦ threaten 50% of native species in US ◦ losses:140 billion/year ◦ accidental: rats, weeds ◦ biological control: cane toad • Spread of the african honeybee ◦ brought in brazil in 1956 to increase product of honey more than italian bees ◦ escaped by accident in 19571 ◦ drives out italian bee ◦ forming hybrids ◦ moves at rate of 60-70 miles per year ◦ 1982: crosses Panama canal ◦ 1985: reaches mexico ◦ 1994: reaches california ◦ presently: in texas, arizona, southern nevada ◦ cold weather might stop them?? ◦ bad news: aggressive toward humans and domestic animals ◦ sever stings and death • Spread of zebra mussel ◦ fingernail size mollusk native to Caspian Sea ◦ 1988: discovered in lake st. claire near detroit ◦ how did it get there? larvae in the ballast of ship from europe ◦ spreads rapidly. moves well in US river systems ◦ forms dense layers hard surfaces- clogs water pipes ◦ feeds on phytoplankton and alters native community = drop in zooplankton bc they eat phytoplankton ◦ crowd out native mussels ◦ fish/duck eat zebra mussels but too numerous!!
result: extinction of local species • Rule of 10 ◦ not all introduced species thrive in new environment ◦ BIRD introductions often fail of 98 species introduced in NA, only 13 have survived of 85 species introduced in europe, only 13 survived ◦ rough generalization for introduced species: ONE OF TEN INTRODUCED/EXOTIC SPECIES WILL SURVIVE IN A NEW ENVIRONMENT ◦ wait actually 2 rules of ten: ◦ on average, one of ten ESTABLISHED species will become a pest find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com California wildfires: 2003 • in the belly of the beetle • healthy tree would be dead in two weeks Current mass extinction • humans currently causing greatest mass extinction since extinction of dinosaurs 65 mil years ago, if continued, half of all species will be extinct in less than 100 years bc habitat destruction pollution invasive species climate change - THE SIXTH EXTINCTION • loss of biodiversity in tropics- evergreen tropical forests most vulnerable- high temps and lots of rain • fragmentation a problem • reduced population sizes • disruption of community structure • large animals and most specialized take hardest hit • immigration another effect • golden toad - pollution global warming extinct 2007 • pyrenean ibex first animal to go extinct in 21 century Mammals extinct after 1500 • number: 76 • giant vampire rat, stellar sea cw, hare wallaby, large sloth lemur, japanese sea lion • passenger pigeons!! Status of US species and causes of decline: 67% apparently secure 15% vulnerable 9% peril 7% critically peril 1% possibly extinct Species introductions (invasive)- 39% Habitat destruction- 36% Hunting- 23% Salmon in the northwest • symbol of abundance and way of life • numbers (18 million) before arrival of explores/europeans, now rapid decline • Grand Coulee (1934)- building of dams also • artificial nature of salmon on columbia river • logging, agriculture, overfishing, damn dams!! find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Destroying national forests some california statistics • 21 million marijuana plants • 5 million indoors • conservative value: $15 billion • 3.5 mil users in state • 1.4 billion dollars in taxes lost bc not legalzied • top 10 cali cash crops: WEED, grapes, almonds, hay, cotton, oranges, walnuts, rice, apples, lemons • top 3 legal crops in US: corn (23 bil), soybeans (18), hay (12), weed (35) • plantations of 25000 weed plants • 450000 plants a year removed (mostly in cali and kentucky) • each plant produces over 2 pounds • half of weed consumed produced domestically Indicators of change: • increasing desertification • movement of people • water and air pollution ◦ children affected ◦ problems w air pollution in major cities (mexico city) ◦ allergies in socal ◦ acid lakes in northeast • connection to income: Why in national forests? • pressure on flow across border • land is free, fertile, remote • ownership difficult to trace, protection of personal property • harder to catch in forest than coming across border Problems in national parks: • pesticides poison wildlife and water • traps, hiking • Daniel Boone national forest in kentucky is #1 producer Sequoia National Park 2000- less than 1000 plants 2005- 127000 plants, street value: 350 million find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com We live in a finite world • resources are limited • change of renewals to non-renewals ◦ bank account analogy Key Points: • there is a global ecological crisis with multiple dimensions • problems are as much political, economic and social as they are biological • central issue is population • population is not fundamentally about numbers, but about resource use • most of the world’s population is in the third world and this population will grow at the expense of rest of world • this population will want the standard of living of those enjoyed by the first world • key concepts in understanding change include: negative and positive feedback and carrying capacity • models and concepts worth knowing: ◦ exponential growth (population), food grows other way ◦ demographic transition ◦ population pyramids ◦ first principle of ecology- everything is related to eveyrhting ◦ precautionary principle- anticipate in face of incomplete info ◦ ecowars ◦ depreciation of natural resources ◦ the agricultural revolution ◦ the industrial revolution ◦ significant of tropics- location of third world ◦ idea of “priority” with regard to aliens- Lake Davis- who’s there first? ◦ ecological and economic cost of keeping marijuana illegal ◦ spotted owl issue, salmon issue, ecoogical problems ◦ water shortage in california ◦ the “water cost” of being a meat eater.. ◦ meaning of the “west” and public lands and how they’re being misused find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com BioSci 55 (cont.) tropics- most biodiversity, poor people, • population pyramid- significance of 16/17 year olds- when they grow, their group does • in tropics- the amazon, southeast asia INDONESIA, central africa • “The West” - CA, WASH, IDAHO, MONTANA, UTAH , WYOMING, ARIZONA, NEW MEX, COLORADO • biggest conservation issue in the West- WATER • we take a lot of water out the colorado river, farming takes most of it (~80%) bc they have power The Scientific Method • use hypothesis- educated guess as to relationship bt two or more variables
 • collect data to test hypothesis • be as objective as possible- consider ALL data that even might counter hypothesis objectivity- randomization, sampling methods use quantitative data • Try to FALSIFY hypothesis- human tendency to seek data that agrees w hypothesis • Use the null hypothesis (no relationship!) aim is to REJECT this why? bc we may not have considered all the factors that account for heart attacks all knowledge is TENTATIVE REJECTING NULL HYPOTHESIS MEANS WE TENTATIVELY ACCEPT HYPOTHESIS • facts! and data! • science as a process that creates a “product" • Diff bt a theory and hypothesis? • science and skepticism- correcting mistakes • junk science/belief statements • diff bt natural sciences and social sciences ex: more obese = more likely heart attack need to find out weight (male/female), ppl dying of heart attacks find obese ppl who have few heart attacks or later in life independent variable- one that causes change what is BLM and why significant bureau of land management, most of land in west find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com major reasons that the governments in US and central american countries looked favorably on importing beef from central america monroe doctrine hypothesis and theory what does demographic transition try to show nations!! Exploitation of the
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