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BIO SCI 93 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Ionic Bonding, Potassium Chloride, BiopsyExam

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Study Guide

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Lecture 1
Hypothesis explanation on trial, usually a rational
account for a set of observations based on available
data guided by inductive reasoning, it can never be
proven but it can be stated to be plausible
Experiment scientific test carried out under controlled
conditions, it involves manipulation of one factor in
a system to observe the effects of changing it
Variable account for a set of observations based on
available data guided by inductive reasoning
Controlled Experiment a design to compare an
experiment group with a control group
Independent Variable factor that is manipulated by the
Dependent Variable factor that is measured in the
Theory well-substantiated explanation based on a body
of evidence and facts that have been confirmed
through observation and experiment
Question: What do you think causes stomach ulcers?
a) Stress
b) Excessive stomach acids
c) Bacteria
d) Bad diet and Alcohol use
e) Being overweight
A: Actually all are factors to causing ulcers, but up until
the late 1900s, more doctors believes that excess
stomach acid caused ulcers.
In 1979, Dr. J. Robbin Warren ( Gastrointestinal
Pathophysiologist ) examined stomach biopsies of
patients with various stomach ailments
Gastro stomach
Patho taking samples
Saw Helicobacter Pylori ( a new series of
bacteria) in biopsies from ulcer patients
o No one believed him
o Convinced his colleges by using a
stain to highlight bacteria on his
o They were convinced but they still
didn’t think it had anything to do
with ulcers
Question: Choose all valid possible alternative hypothesis
a) Biopsy specimens were contaminated after the
samples were taken from patients
b) The bacteria live in the stomach, but are
c) The bacteria show up in the stomach after a
patient has ulcers
Dr. Barry J. Marshall joins Dr. Warren’s research team
Hypothesis: Bacteria CAUSE stomach ulcers
o Conducted the experiment by: surveying
patients who had ulcers and looked for
H. Pylori , the new bacteria noticed by
Dr. J. Robbin Warren
Question: What was missing from their study?
a) an experimental treatment
b) a control group
c) an independent variable
d) a dependent variable
e) a hypothesis
Scientific Method

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Lecture 2
Theme: Building the Cells
Question: Do these molecules make sense?
(A) (B)
a) A makes sense, but B does not make sense
b) B makes sense, but A does not make sense
c) Both A and B make sense
d) Neither A nor B make sense
Most common elements in living things
Number of Chemical Bonds
H = 1
O = 2
N = 3
C = 4
Question: What type of bonds are in these molecules?
Methane (CH4)
A: Covalent
- Share electrons by the bond
Carbon Dioxide
A: Covalent
- Share electrons by the bond
Glucose (C6 H12 O6)
A: Covalent
- Share electrons by the bond
Water (H2O)
A: Covalent & Hydrogen
- Hydrogen positive Covalent is negative
Potassium Chloride
A: Ionic - Share electrons by the bond
Question: What makes the molecule polar?
a) how many carbon atoms it has
b) the presence of oxygen atoms
c) covalent bonds between atoms of different
d) covalent bonds between atoms of similar
e) he presence of at least one ionic bond
Question: Are these molecules polar or non-polar?
Carbon Dioxide
Polarity Cheat Sheet

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If a molecule is composed of only a single
element non-polar
o Examples: H2, O2, N2
If a molecule has only C and H non-polar
o Examples: CH4, C2H4
If a molecule has O, N, or Cl bound to C or H
probably polar!
o Examples: H2O, NH3
BUT it depends on the shape of the
molecule! Most likely H on ends = polar
Question: Why do hydrogen bonds form between water
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