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BIO SCI 94- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 51 pages long!)


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIO SCI 94
Professor
Nancy Burley
Study Guide
Final

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UC-Irvine
BIO SCI 94
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Order of domains:
Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
2 main prokaryotic domains: bacteria and archaea
Under Eukarya domain: 4 kingdoms
Plantae
Fungi
Animalia
Protista
Cladogram : type of evolutionary tree built on cladistic principles
Synapomorphies: traits found suitable for grouping taxa or groups;
shared(derived) trait in 2 or more taxa that was present in their common ancestor
and missing further back
Parsimony: method that implies as few evolutionary steps as possible
Coherence: trees built using different synapomorphies should agree
Scientific theory: a proposed explanation for a very general class of phenomena; well
supported by broad range of evidence
Pattern: deception of phenomena
Process: what generated that pattern
Hypothesis: proposed explanation for a specific phenomenon or set of observations
Evolution: (pattern definition) “descent with modification”
Extant: a lineage with living representatives
Extinct: a lineage whose members are all dead
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“Descent of Modification” :
Species change over time. Different populations of the same species diverge
Different species are related, not independent creations
Evidence from:
1. Geology and physics
2. Fossils
3. Homology
1.) Geology and physics:
Measuring age of Earth and different sediment layers; example: carbon isotopes
Radioactive decay: loss of particles from nucleus at a regular rate that is isotope
specific
U 238 decay → Uranium; 4.5 billion years, example: volcanic rock
2.) Fossils: any trace of organism that existed in past; hard parts are mineralized in sedimentary
rock
Radiometric dating: age layers of igneous rock on either side of sedimentary rock
About 300,000 fossilized species (mostly revive)
Other fossil species resemble extent species in the same area
Transitional fossils: link different groups
Fish and land vertebrates
Wasps and ants
Algae and green plants
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