History of Jazz Studyguide for Midterm.docx

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Biological Sciences
Nicole Mitchell

History of Jazz Studyguide for Midterm Jazz overview notes th o Origin byAfricanAmericans in the 20 century o Incorporates syncopated rhythms, improvisation, bent pitches, and sound of blues o Examples: Dizzie Gilliespie, Charlie Parker, Miles Davis o Jazz is more about expression vs. perfection o Affected social events o Window toAmerican history o Styles: B-bop, Dixieland, swing, cool jazz, boogie woogie o Swing: Bounce, liveliness, syncopated tension like the tension when stretching a rubber band o Call and response o Improvisation: vamp—a repeated phrase/idea o Syncopation o Head o Shedding = practicing o Jazz represented freedom after slavery and innovation, which allows it to meld with other forms of music and evolve from the input of people of diverse backgrounds o 2 key elements that keep jazz alive o Jazz came from audacious roots and wasn’t accepted until late 70s, early 80s o was considered the “devil’s music” o Music of counter-culture inAmerica, rebelling against Prohibition and segregation o Outlawed in Poland during WW2 and Hitler’s occupation o Jazz rebelled against itself African music o Africa has over 2,000 cultures/languages o Slaves did not all come to America from the same country; therefore, conflicts and disagreements with one another occurred o Music had different purposes for the people: healing, celebration, rite of passage, meal time, protection against predators o Africa means “the birthplace” in Kemelic language o Proven to be the origin of human life o Makes up 20% of the Earth’s land mass o Inhabits 1.1 billion people (15 % of the world’s population) o 50% of the population is under 25 years o Music is part of daily life inAfrica—not separated from movement o Idea of griot: oral history/traditions passed down through song, carry the history of people through song, special role/specialization in WestAfrica, and are a family of musicians. o Oneness vs. Manifest Destiny o Oneness:African idea, circular, repeating cycle of creativity and uniqueness o Manifest destiny: European idea, linear progression of ideas o Music is central to life and spirituality o Oral tradition of teaching/learning o Most complex rhythmic expressions on Earth o Tradition of improvisation in music o Openness and unreserved expressiveness in communication/music vs. European reserved, aesthetic focus on purity/perfection o Call and response is central to music –confirmation of what the person says; not an imitation but a response Griot Role o Musicians who carry history of an area through song and stories o WestAfrican tradition o Specific families in an area have carried on the tradition for countless generation, which still continues o Griots are highly respected and revered for their special role o There are several people within the griot family o Drumming was outlawed during slavery—scared of it leading to an uprising Slavery o Tobacco was drying up the land o Textile industry grew demand for cotton increased  labor demand grew o Reason for slavery: economic advantage o The voice/singing was one of the only freedoms of the slaves—singing to keep their spirits up/hope while working and a way to express the sadness they felt o Slavery ended after the Civil War. Lincoln stood on the premise of it being more economically favorable to end slavery o “Dixie land” –name for the Old South o After slavery = Reconstruction, but took a turn to Jim Crowe laws o limited the opportunities forAfricanAmericans—prevents them from being a threat in the job marked o Mandated that the races be separate o Small percentage of people owned slaves –“the elite few” o Formation of the Ku Klux Klan—Christian, white supremac
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