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[CRM/LAW C7] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 30 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Criminology, Law and Society
Course Code
CRM/LAW C7
Professor
Ana Muniz
Study Guide
Midterm

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UC-Irvine
CRM/LAW C7
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter 5: Policing a Free Society
-Why does Goldstein say that police are "an anomaly in a free society"?
Police are invested with a great deal of authority under a system of government in which
authority is reluctantly granted and, when granted, sharply curtailed.
The specific form of their authority- to arrest, to search, to detain, and to use force- is awesome
in the degree to which it can be disruptive of freedom, invasive of privacy, and sudden and
direct in its impact upon the individual.
-What characterizes the "professional model" of policing?
The professional model stresses operating efficiency, to be achieved by centralized control,
clean-cut lines or organization, fuller and more effective use of police personnel, greater
mobility, improved training, and increased use of equipment and technology. It also emphasizes
the need for integrity and higher education.
-Why was the 1965 Watts riot a new kind of challenge for the police?
Urban rioting was new for this generation of police personnel.
The most immediate challenge was to bring the riot under control while minimizing loss of life,
injury, and property damage.
The police were pressured into examining aspects of their own operations that may have
contributed to the widespread discontent of minority groups in urban areas.
-Goldstein argues that the public's main expectation of police is to lower crime. What are some reasons
that the police may not be able to fulfill this expectation on their own?
-In the 1960s, several commissions were convened to explore police reforms. What were some of the
reforms suggested by the commissions to improve policing?
Two commissions gave added impetus to some specific suggestions, such as the more effective
use of police personnel and the requirement that police officers have some college education.
Recommendation that the police develop more humanitarian responses to the problems they
were called upon to handle and thereby improve relationships with officers and the residents of
the areas they policed; to recruit more members of the minority groups into police service; to
eliminate practices that were offensive; and to provide greater help to citizens requesting police
assistance.
They urged to police to view their functions in broader terms; to acknowledge the discretion
that exercised and subject it to control by a system of policy-making; and to develop methods
more satisfactory than the criminal justice system for handling some aspects of the police job.
-Kerner Commission Report
Change operations in the inner city to ensure proper officer conduct and to eliminate
abusive practices
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Provide adequate police protection to inner city residents to eliminate the high level of fear and
crime
-Baltimore Report
Unconstitutional stops, searches, and arrest
Enforcement strategies that produce severe and unjustified disparities in the rates of stops,
searches and arrests of African Americans
Excessive force
-Goldstein makes 7 recommendations to improve policing. Read through these carefully and reflect on
them. Do you think these reforms would be effective if instituted today?
I thik the ould ork i toda’s soiet as ell as it ould ak i the 97s. We are dealig
with the same racial issues and racial violence as we did back them. Police brutality has gone up
and I believe the improvements the Goldstein suggested would be effective till this day.
-Criminological/Sociological
Criminological- looks at an individual and what is good/bad about them
Sociological- Looks at a community as a whole
Individual officers are part of department
Departments across the U.S.
Those departments are a form of law enforcement (fed, state, and local law enforcement)
Political, economic, and social systems
-Law enforcement in the US
Federal (FBI, DOJ, DHS, ATF, ICE, etc.) Highly specialized and investigative. Origin in 1770s. focus
on certain aspects of crime in the U.S. First form of law enforcement in the U.S. 10% of less is at
fed level.
State (Highway patrol, UCPD) Starts in 1880s or early 1900s. Investigative and patrol.
Local (Sheriff’s Dept., PD) Most oo i ura, rural, ad uiorporated areas. Hea o
patrol (in car or on foot)
Private (Guards, airport security) For-profit contracts. Rapidly growing industry. More than any
other level combined.
-Policing- Tension
Police officers have a lot of competing demands
Order and freedom
o polie hae to aitai order ad respet people’s freedo
Expectations and reality
o crime reduction. They are expected to prevent crime. They are just a small factor of
what can prevent crime
Writing in 1977, Goldstein claims that most police departments have centralized streamlined
structure that, above all strove for efficiency. This is most like the crime Control model.
Due Process and crime Control
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