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Midterm

HUMAN 1C Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Slave Ship, White Supremacy, Childbirth


Department
Humanities
Course Code
HUMAN 1C
Professor
Rodrigo Lazo
Study Guide
Midterm

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HumCore Midterm Study Guide
Racecraft
1. Comes from idea of craftsmanship
2. Racist ideas produce race
3. Raceideology that came into existence during historical moment for rationality and is
subject to change (economic and political systems)
4. Race is not biological (one drop of black blood makes you black), objective (people
decide-your great great great grandpa determines your race, no your great grandpa
determines race), trans-historic (same across all time periods), just about Blacks/non-
whites
5. Race about power systems
6. used to justifyexcuses made by societies that needed to segregate and maintain white
supremacy, making race seem real and objective
“Middle Passage”
1. Slave ship had people below deck in uncomfortable quarters
2. Took away African idea that ancestors were still in the community in spirit. Led to
Africans lave suicide so that their souls could go back home. Disruption to community
because once gone to atlantic=gone forever
3. Packed tightly since children didn’t count. Start with more so that when you finish your
journey you have the amount of people you want, 10-15% died
4. Men and women separated by decks. Women responsible for perpetuation of slavery
since they make more slaves
5. Trip was very long
6. Part of triangular tradeslaves to Americas, sugar to new england, rum and goods to
africa
Ethnographic voyeurism: breastfeeding, childbirth in public
1. Ethnographystudying cultures
2. Voyeurismgain sexual pleasure from watching others
3. Eroticism of looking at cultures, sexualized pleasure from watching others
4. Image of Africans as animalistic and sexualized, supposed to intellectual and scientific
but comes off as erotic
5. Childbirth as sign of savageryeasy childbirth=animalistic because Christian women are
supposed to have pain during childbirth since Eve sinned=exempt from Eve’s curse
a. Using women’s body and reproduction as vehicle of racecraft
6. Breastfeeding as sign of otherness/savagery=link sexuality and savagery, African women
breastfeed strangely, compared to orangutans=dehumanize (EX) women breastfeeding
child over shoulder
7. Sex as sign of non-civilization
8. Sex outside of marriage=beastlywhat euros use to define other civilizations
9. (EX) National Geographic displayed image of very buff man, part of tribe of manly men,
exposed
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Gender frontier: European gender expectations vs. native American sexual beliefs
and practices
1. Confrontation of gender ideologies
2. Challenge natural categories
3. Borderlands is a space where different groups try to get control; gender is idea
surrounding male and female
4. Native Americans: holy sexuality
a. Erotic part of natural world
b. Corn mother=earthcorn seeds in earth’s womb, rain came down and seed
germinates
b.i. Earth like reproductive
c. Don’t relate to sex in the way that Euros relate
d. Things in nature named after body parts
e. When boys were born, penis was sprinkled with water and girls covered with seed
gord=cosmic harmony
f. Sex isn’t shameful, what is virginity?
g. Took virgin mary as meaning they had control over their bodies-could sleep with
whoever they wanted
h. Marriage is a promise to each other
5. Europeans: linked sexuality with savagery
a. Naked=promiscuous so euros covered themselves
b. Virginity important because it deals with transfer of property, ensure that the
woman is not pregnant before marriage so that inheritance isn’t given to a kid
who isn’t really the father’s
c. Marriage is a promise to god
d. Did not see whole pic of NA rituals (married people couldn’t sleep with others, if
SO dies, then you shouldn’t marry for at least three years and you should get
permission from deceased’s family)
e. Sex as a natural resource=even the land wanted to have sex with them, virgin
land, untouched and not properly used, needs union with real men
6. Algonquian vs Virginian Anglo
a. Crazy clothing vs. lack of modesty
b. Hairy vs. unmanly
c. Indebted, gave them corn vs. conquered, so afraid they gave us corn
d. Hospitality vs. promiscuity
e. Diplomacy vs. sexual trickery
Labor practices that define and enhance racial, social and gender divisions
1. Women generally did most of the labor, agriculture, preparing like European men
a. Labor was more diverse
2. Men generally do the longer labor (fishing, hunting)
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3. Very seasonal living: warfare and trading in the summer b/c you don’t have to deal with
winter, no hunting in the winter b/c animals aren’t plump
4. Laborers pay taxes=define blacks as laborers and not dependents
a. White women were dependents so husbands don’t pay taxes on their labor
b. Marriage makes them into one which is why they can’t testify against each other
c. Black women still considered laborer even if she is free so still had to pay tax,
lacks coverture, taxed based on race so there’s a disadvantage to marrying AA
women
5. Women can fill in for men’s labor, but men will not
Race-based slavery; slave status of offspring follows the mother
1. if the mother is a slave, the child will be a slave
2. enslaved mother cannot produce free offspring
3. reversal of patriarchy demonstrates how far Europeans were willing to go to ensure that
slavery continues through the generations, reproduction is production
4. protects white men against bastard children
5. defines slavery as inherited and permanent
6. enslaved reproduction widens labor force
7. takes away slave mother’s dominion over child, stripped of rights to motherhood, child is
a slave first and owned by slave owner, not mother
8. women fined more heavily if child is mulatto or black
Ideal of married life vs. reality of married life in colonial America
1. many did not marry AA or NA because of the difficulty and fine
2. valued chastity, fidelity, and monogamy
3. Christian ideal : “Little Commonwealth”marriage structure households and all aspects
of society, parallels b/w political rule and personal rule=man is head of household
4. Man and woman become one in marriage=coverturewoman is legally covered by
husband and wife cannot testify against husband
5. Marriage is about a larger power structure, enforcing gender hierarchies
6. Women should not speak until marriedno longer worried about finding husband or
getting divorced
7. Women should be chaste and coy
8. Scarcity of women
a. 140 women sent to Virginia to become wives, marriage=colonial success, sense of
importance of marriage to society, can’t have big commonwealth without little
commonwealth
b. Men can’t repopulate without women, marriage=civilization
c. French allowed marriage between NA and French because they needed to
populate, can marry if they’re converted
c.i. In reality, French became more indian
9. There was still love in some marriages such as Anne Bradstreet
Different Native American attitudes toward marriage
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