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Department
Humanities
Course
HUMAN 1B
Professor
Molly Burke
Semester
Winter

Description
Humanities Core Winter Quarter • How did he mount a war on slavery? • 1845 published narrative. Nantucca 1841 Douglass gave account of his life, his speech was said to be spoken in a “terrible voice” it galvanized the white audience at the time. • He fought vigorously when no one knew ti slavery would ever be abolished. He did not know. • Contingent- “depending on something else that might or might not happen” • Historical Contingency: the idea that historical events are dependent or contingent on multiple causes that shape, when, how, and why events occurs. • William Llyod garrison, founded the “liberator”, he was an abolitionist, he believed that slaves should be free but gradually, he called for immediate emancipation. He was considered a radical more than others due to his moral perfectionism , he believed that you should cut off any kind of contact with those who were in favor if slavery, against the clergy he thought they were corrupt and did nothing to fight against slavery, disunionism he believed constitution was a corrupt document. He believed the south should be let go. He believed you should not vote in a corrupt society. • They flooded the mailing system to try to get their word out, they engaged in petition campaign 1836, congress however, did not read any. This antislavery movement was influenced by both black, white men and women also. • PracticalAmalgimation • Abolitionism brought violence, they attacked William in Boston. Radical abolitionism became dangerous for those involved and advocating, specially for the a.a. advocates. • The North was severely segregated and douglass noticed he could not sit next to his collegues even on abolitionism meetings. • After publishing his narrative in 1845, his book sold quick. • He left to England 1847 and his friends helped him buy his freedom, he later moved to Rochester New York,, he was less doctrinaire than Garrison. He didn’t believe garrisons thinking was right. He believed that the constitution could be used to outlaw slavery..He began to think that violence could be necessary to eradicate the society. • Slave narratives are autobiographiies but they are not ordinary autobios they have a purpose, they offer a rebuttal of racist and proslavery arguments. They are part ofAmerican literature. Douglass uses imagery, specifically misspelled words. Targeted white audience. These stories involve selection, think of what is left out? And why? • Douglass speaks about how the institution(slavery) corrupts the masters, notice the difference between in house and field servants. • Watch out how Douglass speaks of freedom, look for how douglass establishes his authenticity. 1-8-13  Civil war- war caused by slavery but not initially fought against it, it was first fought because the south wanted to expand westward and expand slave  Abe Lincoln said that he did not support expansion of slavery.south Carolinians succeed from the union December 1860, by time Lincoln is inaugurated in march 1961many more states had succeeded.  Emancipation did not interest Lincoln at start of civil war.  Slaves began to free themsekves as “contrabands” in upper south.  The civil war as a war within a war: slaves resisting masters.  Slaves were being used on confederate fortifications. Butler(northern general) called these slaves contraband of war- they had been taken from the opposing side.  Northenors took pleasure in contraband idea. Contraband meant property and they liked that idea that fugitive slaves were now seem almost as property.  Government set up contraband camps and under those camps hundreds of slaves died of disease and they were actually healthier when under slavery.  Slaves refused to leave into inner south, many burned the homes of slave masters.  March of 1862- it forbade union officers to return slaves to their masters.  At the start of civil war slavery was still legal in District of Columbia.  Lincoln also thought maybe blacks should find a new homeland. When delegation of leaders met Lincoln he explained to them that colonization was a great idea. He urged them to organize colonization someway or another.  Spring of 1862-loss after loss for the Union. In Summer of 1862- blacks were enabled to enroll in army of union.  Emancipation Proclamation- he believed slaves in rebel states should be freed and if they st were not he would free them Jan 1 1863.  Northern army was seen as a way of liberation.  One important provision was that black men could join army.  The 13, 15 amendments were seen as something that black men deserved because of their experience in the war. 1/13/13  Civil War has been the bloodiest war in history . There were more deaths in Civil War than all of the wars combined since Vietnam.  How didAmericans make sense of their catastrophic losses during the Civil War?  Men and woman were extraordinary naïve on how long the war would last, some believed it would end in 90 days.  People were really interested in what the war might look like. People on the home front felt very connected to what was happening on the home front.  Men and woman on the home front helped produce items for the war. Woman were needed to sew uniforms.  Part of womans perceived war was to support the enlistment of men in the war.  Sentimental domesticity was an idea that woman molded men with their love, and this idea also helped justify that men were signing up to kill. Therefore when woman were encouraged to encourage their men to go to war, they were destroying their home.  Sentimentalism help people in the home front to cope with the war.  Louisa MayAlcott uses sentimentalism to tell her story  Photographs of the aftermath shocked the northern world, the photographs provided horrific images of bodies left across the battlefield left to deteriorate.  The photographs primarily captured dead confederates because picturing dead union soldiers would cause more chaos in the north.  Photographs seemed to prose unbearable unspeakable question..Was the Union wortht he cause of all the deaths?  In late 1862 Alcott became a nurse in Washington, and published her book Hospital Sketches, it was a success because it gave people a vivid accounting of the aftermath specially after the battle of Fredericksburg which the union lost.Alcott uses avariety of strategies to make the war not unbearable(to read about) she even gives herself the name tribulation periwinkle.  Alcott justifies her prescence as a woman,think about how does she discuss the lingering death of john the noble blacksmith? How does she talk about being a single woman seeing men in ways that she should not (naked etc)?  Some elements of a “good death” during the civil war included, dying at home, having loved ones at one’s side, being able to communicate last words, and having a chaplain help in a final reconciliation with god. However, most men that died did not have this, many died without being able to be recognized.  The Gettysburg address was a way to consulate the nation, and the families in grief.  With the civil war we see a new emergence of a culture of consolation, the assumption that the main meaning o the war “sacrifice”  Why weren’t there more people who said, this war is meaningless. 1/15/13 • Walt Whitman was famous for saying the real world would not get in the books. • Whitman hoped to write the great book of the civil war. He produced great poems but he did not produce a memorable book. • Leaves of Grass- written by Whitman, this book celebrated the power of the individual in a democratic way. Deliberate celebration of life and death. • Beat Beat Drums- almost a celebration poem, talks about hwo people had to leave, church, leave their beds just to help in the war effort. • Whitman wrote letters of condolences so that they would know he had someone by his side, in order to provide comfort. • Come up from the fields father- Whitman imagines family receiving a letter, letters like the one he was sending, Beautiful images at the beginning before the letter arrives. Instead of a lovely harvest in Ohio there is the Harvest of death. Towards the end there is a figure of the griefing mother. • Nation went into deep mourning due to Lincoln’s death. • O Captain! My Captain- poem about Lincoln described as the Captain • When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d- Whitman trying to offer the nation some sort of consolation, Whitman speaks about his own shock at Lincolns death, he uses images of a bird, star and lilac, to represent Lincoln • Emily Dickinson-has a believe of metaphysics , her poetry was revolutionary with syntax and structure, her use of discontinuities as forms of ruptures these forms challenged meaning. • Dickinson disavowed marriage, she did not want to be stuck with demands of housework, she stayed home to focus on her writing. • Dickinson understood loss, had lost a good friend in war, the war itself did have an impact on Dickinson, she saw many language in the newspapers which were at first new to her. • War vocabulary was put to different use by Dickinson than Whitman. • Dickinson steers away from consolation, she wrote half of her poems during the civil war. • Winslow Homer- he began a war as a limited commercial artist, early in the war he was drawing stereotypical pictures. • He created romanticized battles, he seemd to be interested inAfricanAmerican lives during the war and in camps. 1/22/14  Civil war officially ended in 1865, what impact would the war have onAmerican life?  Right after the civil war/ after Lincoln was killed worst president that came to power was Andrew Johnson  What would happen to white southeners? What would happen to the former slaves? What kind of reconstruction to the union would Lincoln had put together?  No had the revolutionary vision that blalcks could have land of their own. Johnson had all plantation land given back to slave owners.  Degrees of freedom- there was no absolute freedom for blacks.  Black codes are so universal they could be applied to anyAfricanAmerican the black codes were enforced by police and state militias  Congress won in passing laws that helped theAfrican americans and also impeached Andrew j.  They had a rsconstruction act which split up the south to five districts  1867 inaugurates years of black political activism in the south  there was violence that targeted political leaders, by mid 1870’s there was a real turning away from any radical policy  The lost cause- the south may have lost the war but won the war for its memory. (celebration of the confederacy)  Uncle Toms shows overturned the natural relations between races  The lost war/ the tragic war – where the south won the meaning of what the civil war or how it was defined  Wilson made sure to resegragate  In the movie the clip we viewed did no one object to this movie and how they were portrayed? Answer is yes. People protested.  WE DuBois had a tremendous impact in descent impact on the movie and the turn the reconstruction era 1/25/14 • In 1930’s it almost seemed that homosexuality almost seemed to be tolerated. • Except during the 1940’s those ideas seemed to change. • In 1939 with hitlers invasion in poem a whole new dread appears in Duncans poems and writtings • War became heavy mental burden for Duncan once hitler has invaded Poland • Duncan was an anarchist he was against capitalism he was a pacifist and he felt that war would take away from • What possibilities for protest against war existed? • Both men lived in Annapolis at the center of naval academy which was absolutely did not tolerate homosexuality. • The danger attached to homosexuality speacially during a time build up of war • Duncas letters during fall of 1939 became even more anxious, He felt and saw war coming • Duncans cry for freedom • Impending war and war itself operated in sending the two men in different directions 1/29/14 • Dirty as in foul or repulsive.A dirty war breaks international conventions. Dirty Wars used to describe process in Argentina when the gov killed and disappeared people, which then brought along the idea of torture. • Ethical Response to torture • Torture is impossible to describe it is also something that has become Madame as a series of historical events. Words cannot capture this experience (torture). • bistomological limit-something that we cannot brake through • Torture has become increasingly normal in U.S society. • Euphemisms for torture enhaced interrogation technique, moderate physical pressure, refine interrogation, Coercive interrogation, water boarding. • Tortured defined as the infliction of severe bodily pain, for the purpose of an accused to confess • Ticking time bomb-person being tortured has info of an attack, the justification for torture is to protect innocent people. • Torture necessary in order to protect innocent lives? • Ticking time bomb justifies an action based on extreme condition. • In movie,Zero Dark Thirty, it portrays necessity of torture in order to get information and need to carry out justice. • Torture ultimately forms backdrops for dealing with gender in the workplace. • War on terrorism U.S. begins to operate black ops a lot of dark, shadow side will come about but will be discretely done. • Abu Ghraib exposed the dark side on behalf of the U.S • Geneva Conventions Article 3- part of international recognized laws on treatment of prisoner of war. It state not torture should be used. • Loophole- new type of war against terrorist, and terrorist states not protected under Geneva Conventions.
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