Psy Beh 121 - Review Sheet for Final Exam.doc

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Department
Psychology and Social Behavior
Course
PSY BEH 118D
Professor
Joanne Zinger
Semester
Winter

Description
REVIEW SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM Human Sexuality - P118D - Winter 2013 CHAPTER 1: SEXUALITY IN PERSPECTIVE I. Independent Reading A. Sex and Gender (pages 2-3) 1. The text authors employ the term sex to refer to “sexual anatomy and behavior” and the term gender to refer to “the state of being male or female.” 2. Sexual behavior will be defined as behavior that produces arousal and increases the chance of orgasm. B. The Media (pages 6-7): 1. Text authors review the impact of media on sexuality.  The mass media carry extensive portrayals of sexuality and are a powerful influence on most people’s understanding of sexuality 2. Three types of media influence:  Cultivation: the notion that people begin to think that what they see on TV and in other media really represents the mainstream of what happens in their culture  Agenda-setting: news reports select what to report/ emphasize and what to ignore  Social learning: characters in movies/ novels may serve as models whom we imitate, possibly without even realizing it 3. Impact of the Internet  The newest, and possibly the most powerful mass media influence  Has the potential for both positive (websites that provide information about sexuality/ promote sexual health) and negative (sexual solicitation) effects on sexual health C. The Sexual Health Perspective (page 20) 1. Sexual health is an all-encompassing term referring to sexually transmitted infections as well as social and political issues related to sexual health across countries. 2. A new focus on positive sexual health has emerged. II. Cultural Perspectives on Sexuality A. Sex as Taboo o Major generalization from cross-cultural studies: no society has seen fit to leave sexuality totally unregulated, perhaps fearful that social disruption would result o Incest taboos are nearly universal o Most societies also condemn forced sexual relations such as rape B. Variations in Sexual Techniques 1. There are a few societies in which kissing is unknown 2. Inflicting pain on the partner is also a part of the sexual technique in some societies 3. The frequency of intercourse of married couples varies considerably from culture to culture C. Masturbation o Some societies tolerate/ encourage it during childhood and adolescence, while other societies condemn it at any age o Almost all societies express some disapproval of adult masturbation; can range from mild ridicule to severe punishment o At least some adults in all societies appear to practice it D. Premarital and Extramarital Sex 1. Societies differ considerably in their rules regarding premarital sex 2. Extramarital sex ranks second only to incest as the most strictly prohibited types of sexual contact E. Sex with Same-Gender Partners 1. No matter how a particular society treats homosexuality, the behavior always occurs in at least some individuals 2. Men are more likely to engage in same-gender sexual behavior than women 3. Same-gender sexual behavior is never the predominate form of sexual behavior for adults in any society F. Standards of Attractiveness 1. The region of the body that is judged for attractiveness varies from one culture to the next 2. In most cultures (not the U.S.), a plump woman is considered more attractive than a thin one 3. A poor complexion is considered unattractive in the majority of human societies G. Social Class and Ethnic Group Variations in the U.S. CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON SEXUALITY I. Independent Readings A. Learning Theory and Sexual Orientation in a Non-Western Society (page 31) 1. In Sambia, men are expected to be in homosexual relationships for 10 years and then marry women 2. Social learning theory may be able to explain this pattern of behavior 3. Positive conditioning in the direction of heterosexuality occurs early in life 4. Observational learning occurs 5. The boy is provided with much cognitive structuring, a notion present in social learning theory & cognitive psych 6. Social learning theory provides a sensible explanation of the seemingly puzzling shift that Sambia males make B. Sociological Perspectives (pages 34-38) 1. Influence of society is discussed in this text from the macro level of analysis, focusing on social institutions. 2. Symbolic interaction theories 3. Sexual scripts are learned sets of behavior that delineate the sequence and character of sexual encounters. 4. Ira Reiss points out that sexuality is universally important. II. Psychological Theories A. Psychoanalytic theory 1. Freud saw the sex drive – what he called libido - as one of the key forces in human life 2. Freud saw the libido as being focused in various regions of the body (erogenous zones) B. Learning Theory: Classical conditioning, operant conditioning CHAPTER 3 – SEX RESEARCH I. Independent Reading A. Issues in Sex Research (Pages 41-46): Sampling, accuracy of self-reports, interviews vs. questionnaires, ethical issues B. Studies of Special Populations (Page 52): Project SIGMA, web-based surveys C. Media Content Analysis (Page 53-54) 1. The researcher codes the content of references to a topic found in a particular medium 2. Measures of intercoder reliability can be used to assess the interference of researcher bias. D. Laboratory Studies Using Direct Observation (page 54-56). E. Experiments (pages 57-58) II. The Major Sex Surveys A. The Kinsey Report: The sample, the interviews, accuracy B. The National Health & Social Life Survey (NHSLS) 1. An up-to-date, large-scale, national survey of sexuality using probability sampling methods 2. The most controversial statistic in the study was the incidence of homosexuality III. Masters and Johnson - The Physiology of Sexual Response A. Sampling 1. Participants from the general population were paid for their help in the laboratory 2. In all, 694 people participated in the study; men ranged from 21 to 89, women from 18 to 78 3. Participants were more educated than the general population and the sample was mostly White B. Data collection Techniques 1. First, they had a “practice session" 2. Physical responses were recorded during sexual intercourse, masturbation, and artificial coition CHAPTER 6: CHILDBIRTH I. Independent Reading A. Pregnancy (pages 116-124): First trimester, second trimester, third trimester, father's experience B. Infertility (pages 136-138): Infertility refers to the inability to conceive 1. PID, blockage of the fallopian tubes, and poor nutrition are examples of female causes of infertility. 2. Male infertility is typically the result of STDs, low sperm count, or poor sperm motility 3. Treatments II. Problem Pregnancies A. Ectopic pregnancy (misplaced pregnancy) occurs when the fertilized egg implants somewhere other than the uterus 1. Most commonly ectopic pregnancies occur when the egg implants in the fallopian tube (tubal pregnancy) 2. Approximately 2% of all pregnancies are ectopic B. Pseudocyesis (False Pregnancy) 1. She may stop menstruating and may have morning sickness; her abdomen may bulge 2. The condition may persist for several months before it goes away C. Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension includes three increasingly serious conditions 1. It is hypothesized that the fetus, perhaps due to insufficient nutrition, releases a protein that increases the mothers blood pressure and, therefore, the flow of nutrients to the placenta 2. Preeclampsia is more likely to occur in women who have not completed a pregnancy before, teenagers, Latina and Black women, and overweight women 3. Hypertension and preeclampsia can be managed well during their early stages D. Viral illness during pregnancy: Rubella (German measles), herpes E. Birth Defects 1. A number of factors cause defects in the fetus 2. Of all babies born in the U.S., 2 to 3% have a significant birth defect 3. Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling are available to help to detect some birth defects F. Rh Incompatibility 1. The Rh factor is a substance in the blood 2. Problem occurs when an Rh- woman is pregnant with an Rh+ fetus (can happen only if the father is Rh+) 3. If some Rh+ blood gets into Rh- blood, the Rh- blood forms antibodies 4. An injection of a substance called Rhogam prevents the woman's blood from producing antibodies G. Miscarriage, or spontaneous abortion, occurs when a pregnancy terminates through natural causes 1. It is estimated that at least 20% of all pregnancies end in miscarriage 2. Most miscarriages occur because the conceptus is defective H. Preterm Birth: When delivery occurs prior to 37 weeks gestation, it is considered preterm 1. 12.5% of all births in the U.S. in 2004 were preterm 2. The premature infant is much less likely to survive than the full-term infant 3. Maternal factors are associated with prematurity CHAPTER 7 ~ CONTRACEPTION I. Independent Reading A. Attitudes Toward Contraception (pages 165-167): Cost-benefit, developmental, emotional/personality, media images B. Abortion (pages 167-171): The termination of pregnancy is a highly controversial subject, and rates vary across cultures. 1. The vacuum aspiration method 2. Dilation and evacuation 3. Labor may be induced with the use of a prostaglandin injection or by injecting saline into the amniotic sac. 4. Hysterotomy is typically a second trimester procedure and is essentially a Cesarean section. 5. Misoprostol, also known as RU-486, induces the uterus to slough off its lining to expel the embryo. 6. The decision on whether or not to have an abortion precipitates psychological stress 7. While counseling is generally available for women seeking an abortion, it rarely is for men C. New Advances in Contraception (pages 171-173) 1. Male birth control pills that suppress FSH and LH, and thus sperm production, currently are being tested. 2. A vaccine for males would cause the immune system to interrupt one of the stages in the fertility cycle. 3. For females, microbiocides could kill sperm. These could be used alone or with a condom or diaphragm. 4. New forms of IUDs, diaphragms, contraceptive creams, and condoms are being developed. 5. A contraceptive spray is being researched. It would be sprayed on the skin once a day. 6. Researchers in the Netherlands are studying a nonsurgical blockage of the fallopian tubes with silicone plugs. II. Condoms: The Male Condom (“rubber,” “jimmies,” “safe”) is a thin sheath that fits over the penis A. Effectiveness: The perfect-use failure rate is about 2% B. The typical-use failure rate is about 15% C. Side Effects: The condom has no side effects, except that some users are allergic to latex III. Withdrawal (aka "pull out method" aka "coitus interruptus") A. The failure rate is around 27% B. Failures occur for several reasons: 1. Pre-ejaculate fluid may carry enough sperm for conception to occur 2. If ejaculation occurs near or on the vulva, sperm may still get into the vagina 3. Sometimes, the man simply does not withdraw in time CHAPTER 8: SEXUAL AROUSAL I. Independent Reading A. Sexual Techniques (Pages 197-212): erogenous zones, one-person sex, two-person sex, aphrodisiacs, exceptional sex B. A Personal Growth Exercise – Getting to Know Your Body (page 211) 1. Undress and stand in front of the mirror 2. Take a good look at your body, top to bottom – what pleases you? What don’t you like? 3. Look at your body – what parts influence how you feel about yourself sexually? 4. Run your fingers slowly over your body 5. Explore your genitals 6. You are ready to communicate some new information to your partner! C. Sexuality and Disability (Page 188-189): Spinal-cord injury, mental retardation D. Neuronal and Hormonal Bases of Arousal (pages 186-195) 1. Erection and ejaculation are largely products of reflex actions of the receptors, transmitters, and effectors. 2. Premature ejaculation, male orgasmic disorder, and retrograde ejaculation 3. Whipple and Perry reported findings on female ejaculation 4. Findings from studies using functional MRIs and other techniques 5. Hormones are responsible for both prenatal organizing and later activating effects 6. The brain and spinal cord, and sex 7. Brain control of sexual response is not presently completely understood. 8. Hormones and Sex— hormones of both sexes interact with the nervous system to influence sexual responses. E. Gilliand et al (2009) article: Women's experiences of female ejaculation II. The Sexual Response Cycle A. The Excitement phase is the beginning of erotic arousal: men vs. women B. Orgasm 1. In males, orgasm consists of a series of rhythmic contractions of the pelvic organs at 0.80-second intervals 2. The process of orgasm in females is basically similar to that in males C. Following orgasm is the resolution phase, during which the body returns physiologically to the unaroused state 1. In men 2. In women: The resolution phase generally takes 15-30 minutes 3. Oxytocin is secreted during sexual arousal, and a surge of prolactin occurs at orgasm in both women and men D. Masters & Johnson discovered that women do not enter a refractory period, and that they can have multiple orgasms 1. Masters & Johnson found that women in masturbation might have 5 to 20 orgasms 2. Some men are capable of having multiple orgasms III. Other Models of Sexual Response A. Kaplan’s Triphasic Model: the sexual response as having three relatively independent phases, or components B. The Sexual Excitation-Inhibition Model 1. Dual Control Model of sexual response proposes that two basic processes underlie human sexual response 2. People who are very high on the excitation component and low on the inhibition component may engage in high- risk sexual behaviors; people who are very high on inhibition and low on excitation may be more likely to develop sexual disorders such as erectile dysfunction 3. Scales to measure individuals’ tendencies toward sexual excitation and sexual inhibition C. Emotion and Arousal 1. Participants filled out daily online surveys about their emotions and sexual feelings/behaviors 2. The results indicated that when people were happier, they also had more thoughts of sexual arousal 3. When people experienced stronger negative emotions, they also had more thoughts of arousal IV. Mapping the Sexual Brain A. To study sex, researchers show erotic videos to the person inside the scanner B. Intense brain activity is found in the right insula, the cingulate cortex, and the amgydala (among other areas) 1. The insula is known to be involved in sensory processing, particularly of touch sensations 2. The cingulate cortex has been demonstrated in other studies to be involved in attentional processes and in guiding responsiveness to new environmental stimuli 3. The amygdale is known to be involved in emotion, and its activation speakers to the strong emotions – sometimes positive, sometimes negative – that are evoked by sexual stimuli V. Pheromones are biochemicals secreted outside the body and are detected via the olfactory glands (smell) A. Synthesized female pheromone experiment B. Menstrual synchrony CHAPTER 9: SEXUALITY AND THE LIFE CYCLE - CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE I. Independent Readings A. Preadolescence (pages 219-222) 1. Research indicates that age 10 is the average reported for initial sexual attraction to another person. 2. Masturbation becomes an increasingly common behavior, particularly for boys. 3. Heterosexual behavior is not common at this time, due to social divisions of boys and girls. 4. Same-gender behaviors are not unusual and are in part due to the homosocial organization of children. 5. Mixed-gender activities increase around age 10 or 11 6. Sexualization of children is a concern to some parents, educators, and researchers B. Adolescence (pages 222-227) 1. Sexual interest increases. 2. Masturbation rates rise sharply in boys between ages 13 and 15; girls demonstrate a much more gradual increase 3. Adolescent same-gender behaviors are reported by 10 percent of males and 6 percent of females C. The Impact of the Mass Media on Adolescent Sexuality (224-225) 1. An increasingly important source of information is the mass media 2. 70% of prime-time TV shows include sexual material, only 4% of those depicting risk or responsibility 3. Cable movie networks have the largest proportion of programs with sexual content (often with alcohol & drugs) 4. Many music videos are sexual and frequently combine sex with aggression; many also objectify women 5. Variations in age, gender, ethnicity, and social class 6. “Heterosexual script” as portrayed in the media 7. Longitudinal study on youth, TV viewing behaviors, and social behavior 8. Experimental evidence of the effect of media on attitudes and behavior 9. Media portrays are unrealistic D. Teen Pregnancy and Parenthood (pages 232-233) 1. The rate of teen pregnancy in the U.S. is the highest of any Western nation 2. The teen pregnancy rate has declined 36% since it peaked in 1990 3. Several factors have contributed to the incidence of non-marital pregnancy and childbearing 4. Furstenberger et al. did a study of teenage pregnancy and its effects on the mother and her child 5. The cost of teenage pregnancy to the U.S. taxpayers 6. Factors crucial to successful outcomes E. How Sexuality Aids in Development (pages 236-238) IV. Premarital Intercourse A. How many people have pre-marital intercourse? 1. 70% of women and 78% of men interviewed reported engaging in vaginal intercourse before marriage 2. Data indicate 46% of female and 50% of male high school students have engaged in sex 3. In 2000, the average age for first intercourse was 15 for men and 15.5 for women 4. Five correlates of sexual intercourse onset B. First Intercourse 1. Influence on whether one engages in intercourse for the first time include social & biological influences 2. The role of the youth's friends 3. Researchers have also examined the reactions to first coitus of college students D. Attitudes toward premarital intercourse 1. Sociologist Ira Reiss (1960) distinguished among four kinds of standards for premarital coitus 2. In 1937-1959, few people approved of premarital Intercourse; by 1982 more people approved than disapproved, F. Dating and Friends with Benefits 1. Sorensen (1973) found the most common premarital sexual pattern to be serial monogamy without marriage 2. Many adolescents remain actively involved in mixed-gender social groupings 3. On college campuses across the U.S., another type of nonrelational encounter occurs, hooking up G. Sexting, the sending of sexually charged messages or images by cell phone, is rapidly gaining national attention 1. Percentages of young adults and teens that are sending these messages and images 2. The risk is that someone other than the intended recipient will see the text or photo or video 3. Think twice before you hit SEND! CHAPTER 10: SEXUALITY AND THE LIFE CYCLE ~ ADULTHOOD I. Independent Reading A. Sex and the Single Person (pages 241-244) 1. Early adulthood is a time of maturing and defining sexual identity. 2. Most adults eventually marry, but opportunities are limited after age 25 due to changes in social structures. B. Cohabitation (page 244) 1. Living together is often viewed as a step toward marriage 2. Approximately 40 percent of cohabiting couples have children C. Sexual Patterns in Marriage (pages 248-249) 1. As with other groups, married couples report higher rates of oral-genital contact over the past 50 years. 2. About one quarter of married persons in the NHSLS reported engaging in anal sex. D. Postmarital sex (pages 255-256) 1. There are few restrictions on postmarital sex 2. Widows, even when accounting for age, are less likely to engage in postmarital sex than divorcees E. Sex and Seniors (pages 256-262) 1. Female changes with aging 2. Menopause refers to the cessation of menstruation that occurs between the ages of 40 and 60. 3. The climacteric is a 15- to 20-year period of transition 4. Menopause may be marked by “hot flashes,” headaches, and possibly osteoporosis. 5. Hormone-replacement therapy 6. Menopause is associated with some decline in sexual functioning, due in part to vaginal dryness 7. Obviously, men do not cease menstruating, but they do experience declining levels of androgens 8. Enlargement of the prostate gland is a common physical problem for males as they age. 9. The “male midlife crisis” 10. Changes for men 11. In general, attitudes toward sexual expression by the elderly are rather negative in the United States 12. Good physical and mental health and regularity of sexual expression are keys to maintaining sexual capacity. 13. Institutional settings impede sexual expression, whether by self-stimulation or with a partner. 14. Many couples report satisfying sex lives well into their sixties and beyond. II. Marital Relationships A. Frequency of Marital Intercourse 1. About 92% of all people aged 54 or younger are or have been marred; of those who divorce, 80% remarry 2. The average American married couple have coitus two to three times per week when they are in their 20s B. The NHSLS asked respondents to estimate the duration of their last sexual interaction 1. 16% of the married people reported that it lasted 15 minutes or less 2. 9% reported that it lasted 1 hour or more 3. I-Clicker Question – what about us? 4. (Incidently, 1/3 of the never-married couples said 1 hour or more) C. A survey of married couples found that for 33% of them, the husband and wife are about equally likely to initiate sex 1. The traditional gender typing of initiation patterns may be related to how people deal with a refusal 2. If the man initiates and the woman refuses 3. If the woman initiates and the man refuses D. Masturbation in Marriage 1. The NHSLS found that 63% of married men and 42% of married women reported masturbating in the last year 2. 17% of the married men and 5% of the married women in the NHSLS survey masturbate at least once a week E. Satisfaction with Marital Sex 1. Half of the married men and about 40% of the married women are “extremely” or “very” sexually satisfied 2. Sexual satisfaction predicted marital quality for both men and women 3. Four factors differentiating those who were happy with their sex lives and those who were not: F. Sex and the Two-Career Family 1. A study followed 550 couples for one year following the birth of a baby 2. Problems may occur at the extremes III. Extramarital sex, or adultery, refers to sexual activity between a married person and someone other than that person’s spouse A. How Many People Engage in Extramarital Sex? B. Attitudes toward Extramarital Sex: 1. 78% of adult Americans believe it is always wrong for a married person to have sex outside the marriage 2. Attitudes toward extramarital sex are not very good predictors of extramarital sexual behavior C. Who engages in extramarital affairs? 1. More common among people with low incomes, and those who rarely or never attend religious services 2. Men who reported participation in affairs were older and more sexually dissatisfied 3. A study asked each partners how likely he or she was to be unfaithful in the next year D. Swinging & Polyamory CHAPTER 11: ATTRACTION, LOVE, AND COMMUNICATION I. Independent Reading: A. Explaining our Preferences (pages 268-270): Reinforcement, Byrne's Law of Attraction, Sociobiology, Sexual Strategies B. Love in Action (page 273) Sternberg argues that each of the three components of love must be translated into action 1. The intimacy component is expressed in actions such as communicating personal feelings and information 2. The passion component is expressed in actions such as kissing, touching, and making love 3. The decision or commitment component is demonstrated by actions such as saying, "I love you" C. Jealousy (pages 276-277) 1. Intense cases of jealousy may result in violence 2. Jealousy is a cognitive, emotional, and behavioral response to a threat to an interpersonal relationship 3. Two types of jealousy: emotional jealousy and sexual jealousy 4. The evolutionary perspective hypothesizes that there is a gender difference in jealousy 5. Research did not confirm this hypothesis; both men and women are more concerned with emotional jealousy 6. Two situations activate jealousy: threat to our self-esteem and threat to the relationship 7. Stages of the jealousy response: cognitive, emotional (jealous flash, reapprasial) 8. Behavioral coping responses to jealousy 9. Attachment style and jealousy D. Research on Love (pages 279-283) 1. Hatfield and Sprecher developed a paper-and-pencil measurement of passionate love 2. Love and adrenaline are the components of the two-component theory of love 3. Cross-cultural research identifies two dimensions on which cultures vary. 4. Individualism-collectivism 5. Independence-interdependence E. Communication (pages 283-291) F. Gender Differences in Communication (page 285) 1. Are there substantial gender differences in communication styles? 2. Research results on women's vs. men's tendencies/abilities 3. In same gender pairs, women disclose more; but when talking to women, men do disclose 4. Men and women have different goals when they speak 5. Gender differences are small; research does not support the notes that men and women are from different cultures 6. We should not be led astray by flashy claims that men and women have totally different communication styles 7. Good communicaiton is essential for satisfying, mutually pleasurable sex G. How Solid is Your Relationship (page 290): Survey to assess your level of love and respect in a relationship H. Independent Reading Article: Kline et al. (2008): Communicating Love: Comparisons between American and East Asian University Students II. Attraction A. The Girl Next Door B. Birds of a Feather 1. We are attracted to people who are approximately the same as we are 2. We are attracted to people whose attitudes are opinions are similar to ours; reinforcement theory 3. The saying “Birds of a feather flock together” contains some truth C. Physical attractiveness 1. Given a choice of more than one potential partner, we prefer the one who is more physically attractive 2. Physical attractiveness is more important to men evaluating women than it is to women evaluating men 3. Our perception is influenced by intelligence, liking, and respect and by our own objective attractiveness D. Interpersonal Marketplace 1. Whom we are attracted to and pair of with depends a lot on how much we think we have to offer 2. High school yearbook picture study 3. Desirable dates study E. From the Laboratory to the Real Life 1. Researchers administered a questionnaire to 420 college students, and from them, formed 44 “couples” 2. Half the couples were very similar, half were very dissimilar 3. The couple was then introduced and sent to the student union on a brief date 4. When they returned from the date, an unobtrusive measure of attraction was taken 5. Results F. Attraction Online 1. 11 percent of internet users had visited an online dating site, and the numbers are rising. Why? 2. Advantages to internet dating 3. A major disadvantage is the risk that the other person may not be honest 4. Online dating sites have enlisted the help of researchers in developing a “scientific” approach to pairing clients II. Intimacy A. Intimacy's defining features B. Intimacy and Self-Disclosure 1. Self-disclosure involves telling your partner some personal things about yourself 2. If one member of the couple self-discloses, this prompts the other partner to self-disclose also 3. Couples that practice more self-disclosure feel more intimate, are more satisfied, and have longer relationships C. Scales for measuring intimacy III. Love A. Triangular theory of love 1. Three components of love 2. When there is a good match between the two partner's love, they tend to feel satisfaction with the relationship 3. Findings from Sternberg's Triangular Theory B. Attachment Theory of Love 1. The quality of the early attachment between infant and parent profoundly affects us for the rest of our lives 2. Adults are characterized, in their romantic relationships, by one of three styles 3. A study of heterosexual couples in serious dating relationships C. Love as a story 1. A love story is a story about what love should be like 2. One examples is the war story 3. Where do our stories come from? 4. Sternberg identified 25 categories of love stories found in U.S. culture; recent research boiled it down to 7 9. Love stories and relationship satisfaction D. The Biology of Love 1. A fourth perspective differentiates between two kinds of love: Passionate love and companionate love 2. Passionate to companionate love 3. Bodily chemistry and neural activity in passionate and compan
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