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PSYCH 9A- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 55 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 9A
Professor
Bruce Berg
Study Guide
Final

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UC-Irvine
PSYCH 9A
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter One (The Problem of consciousness) [Lecture 1-25]
A. Defining the Problem (2-3)
B. Philosophical theories (4-8)
a. Monism vs. Dualism
C. Consciousness in Psychology
a. Introspection
b. Behaviorism
c. Cognitive Psychology
D. The Explanatory Gap
A. Defining the Problem
a. Consciousness is a private experience that cannot be explained by words
b. No geeall aepted defiitio of consciousness
I. There exists no accepted definition of consciousness
c. Eeda usage: esposie, aake, Koig soethig, attedig to soethig
d. Ofte otasted ith unconscious
e. I sietifi stud of osiousess, it ofte efes to sujetie epeiee & aaeess
f. Interdisciplinary: Psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, computer science
g. Emphasis will be on a science of consciousness based on empirical findings and testable theories
h. Consciousness is our first-person view of the world but most science is a third-person view, things
that can be verified and agreed on by others
B. Philosophical Theories
a. Broadly divided into Monist (One kind of stuff in the world)
Dualist (Two kinds)
b. Monist
I. Mental world is fundamental (George Berkeley)
II. Physical world is fundamental
c. Epiphenomenalism: Mind is produced by physical events, but has no causal role (cannot affect the
physical)
I. “oud of a loootie histle a’t ifluee its ahie
- La Mettrie (1709-1751): Man a machine
- Huas ae osious autoata
d. Neutral Monism: tries to avoid the two extreme views
I. World is made up of one kind of stuff, but that stuff a’t e lassified as eithe etal of
physical
e. Dualism: mind & brain are two different stuff
I. French Philsospher Rene Descarte (1596-1650)
- The Meditations (1641)
II. Wanted to base his philosophy on a firm foundation (what am I absolutely sure of?)
- I thik, theefoe I a
III. Substance Dualism
- For the theory to work, the mind and physical must interact (in both directions)
- Descarte: interaction happens in the pineal gland
IV. Poposig a site does’t sole the uestio of ho this iteatio happes
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V. Very few dualists today
VI. Most neuroscientist & psychologists
- Minds are simply what brains do
C. Consciousness in Psychology
a. William James: Psychology is the science of mental life (feelings, perceptions, …
I. Disissed dualist ie of id-stuff
II. Stream of Consciousness: flow of successive thoughts, ideas, feelings, images
b. Psychophysics: Investigates the relationship between sensation and physical stimuli
I. Weber (1795-1878) Fechner (1801-1887)
II. Weber-Fechner law:
- K = Constant
- The value of k depends on which sensory or perceptual dimension you are measuring:
a) K = 0.04 Sound intensity
b) K = 0.02 Light intensity
c) K = 0.08 Taste (salty)
d) K = 0.02 Lifted weights
e) K = 0.01 Electric Shock
- If for simplicity we assume that k = 1, then:
c. In 1850, Helmholtz made first measurement of speed of conduction of nerve signals
I. Populal efeed to as the speed of thought
d. Wilhelm Wundt: Principles of Physiological Psychology
I. Leipzig Psychology Laboratory
II. 20 labs by 1892 at US Universities
III. American Psychological Association (APA)
IV. … adaeet of Psholog as a siee
e. Edward Titchener (Cornell Univ.)
I. Method of Introspection
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