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PUBHLTH 1 Study Guide - Fall 2019, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Tobacco Smoking, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Socioeconomic Status


Department
Public Health
Course Code
PUBHLTH 1
Professor
Zuzana Bic
Study Guide
Midterm

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PUBHLTH 1

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CHAPTER 1 PH: SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PREVENTIONS
Health is a state of complete physical, mental, social and spiritual well-being and not merely the
absence of disease
Health represents a dynamic state with habits that promote health and lowering risk of any
diseases
Dimensions of health
- Emotional health: feel and express emotions, self-esteem
- Intellectual health: open mind and learn new things
- Spiritual health: meaning and direction in life
- Occupational health: relates to place of employment
- Social health: relationship, interaction with others
- Physical health: perform normal activities of daily life
- Environmental h: external factors that affect health, water, air, …
What is PH
- The fulfillment of society’s interest in assuring the conditions in which ppl can be healthy
- Organized community efforts aimed at the prevention of disease and the promotion of
health
Core functions of PH
- Assessment
- Policy development
- Assurance (protect health and prevent disease)
- Compare with medical doctor
- Diasgnostic proess for health/diseas
- Strategic approach/treatment plan
PH vs Medical care
- Medicaine the patient is the individual; in PH the patient in the community
PH: science and politics
- Science is how we understand threats to health, determine what interventions might
work and evaluaate whether the interventions worked
- Politics is how we as a society
PH disciplines
- Epidemiology
- Statistics
- Biomedical studies
Epidemiology
- Basic science of PH
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- Study of epidemics
- Aims to control spread of infectious diseases
- Seeks causes of chronic disease and ways to limit harmful exposures
Statistics
- Collection of data on the pop
- These numbers are diagnostic tools for health of community
- Science of statistics used to calculate risks, benefits
Biomedical sciences
- Infectious disease - pathogens
- Chronic disease
- Dengetics
“Important to know what sort of patient has a disease than what sort of disease a patient has”
Environment health sciences
- Health effects of environmental
Social and behavioral sci
- Behavior is now the leading factor in affecting health
Health policy and mgmt
- Role of medical care
Ph: prevention and intervention
- Primary prevention (prevent disease)
- Secondary
PH approach
- Define the health problem
- Identify the risk factors associated with problem
- Develop and test community-level interventions to control or prevent the cause
Chain of causation
- Agent
- Host
- Environment
- Interventions can focus on any of these targets
CHAPTER 2 WHY IS PH CONTROVERSIAL?
Social justice vs market justice
- Ph should be a way Of doing justice a way of asserting the value and priority
- Ph is social justice
- The common good (value )
Sources of controversy
- Economic impact
- Businesses often resist ph measures because the affect profits
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- Those who must pay may not be the ones who benefit
- Costs may be short-term, while benefits may be long-term
- Costs easier to calculate than benefits
- Individual liberty
- Gov should provide max health and safety for community as a whole
- agreement : to restrict an individual’s freedom
- Tragedy of the commons
- Exemplified in many environmental laws
- Freedom to pollute
- Behavior on indirect harm: tragedy of common
When can gov restrict individual freedom?
- To prevent harm to others
- Helmets - tyranny of health, health police, but risk for other drivers
- Paternalism- acceptable for children
- To protect individuals from their own actions? (opposed by libertarians, only to prevent
harm to others) (banned smoking indoor, smoking itself cannot be regulated in adults)
Moral and religious opposition
- Sex and reproduction
- Alcohol and drugs
- Clean needles to drug addicts- effective to reduce the spread of the virus vs the believe
of moralist - they believe it condones the use of iv drugs
CHAPTER 3 POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF GOVERNMENT
Federal vs state
- Us constitution: to promote the general welfare
- Reserve clause: since health is not mentioned in constitution, primary repsonsibilty
belongs to the states
- Interstate commerce clause justifies federal role in some cases
- Power to tax and spend is widely used by federal gov to control PH policy
Branches of gov
- Legislate: passes statutes
- Executive: ph agencies carry out the law; may issue regulations consistent with statutes
- Judicial: laws and regulations can be challenged in court
Centers for disease control and prevention
- Main epidemiologic and assessment agency for the nation
- Center for health stat: collects data on us pop concerning all aspects of health
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