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COM 1000

Chapter 1: An introduction to the study of communication 1. Identify and explain how the process of communication is pervasive, amoral, and agenda-advancing.  Pervasiveness: communication takes place wherever humans are together because people tend to look for meaning, even when a message is not deliberately sent.  Amoral: when the process of communication is ethically neutral: not moral nor immoral  Agenda-advancing: using communications as becoming more effective in life; being able to engage in agenda-advancing behavior in an ethical manner. 2. Identify and explain logos, pathos, and ethos. How can speakers use each of these concepts in presentations?  Logos: making a logical appeal through: organization, credible evidence, clear presentation of the evidence, and consistency.  Pathos: emotional appeal: concerned with how the receivers feel. Specific examples and stories can appeal to the audience emotionally.  Ethos: the receiver’s perception of a sender’s competence and trustworthiness; credibility. 3. Identify and explain the SMCRE model.  Source, Message, Channel (5 senses), Receiver, and Environment. The communicator has least control over the receivers and the most control over the message. It helps in studying what elements, or variables, make up the process of human communication. 4. Identify and explain the ELM.  ELM is the Elaboration Likelihood Message: a comprehensive theory of persuasion. It it sis the likelihood that a receiver will elaborate the sender’s message. There are two routes of ELM: Central and Peripheral Route. 5. Identify and explain how you can maximize the likelihood that your audience will be motivated and able to process your message.  By using relevance. If a message is personally relevant to the audience, then they are motivated d to process that message carefully. Also, tell the audience why your message in important to them in the beginning of a presentation. 6. Identify and explain the various contexts in which communication takes place.  Interpersonal Communication: the process of using messages to generate meaning between at least two people in a situation that allows mutual opportunities for both speaking and listening.  Small group communications: communication that takes place among three more individuals who are interdependent, share goals, identify with one another and interact. Chapter 2: Perception, self, and communication 1. Identify and explain why and how differences in perception occur.  Differences in perception occur because the way you sense the world is subjective, unique to each person. Perception: the process of becoming aware of objects and events from the senses. 2. Identify and explain how selection, organization, and interpretation occur during `perception.  Selective perception: the tendency to see, hear, and believe only what you want to see, hear and believe. Ex. Someone accused your close trust- worthy friend of stealing.  Organization occurs during perception when there is a grouping of stimuli into meaningful units or wholes. You organize it into: figure and ground, closure, proximity, and similarity.  Interpretation: perception that involves a blend of internal states and external stimuli. 3. Identify and explain figure and ground, proximity, closure, and similarity.  Figure: the focal point of your attention.  Ground: the background against which your focused attention occurs.  Proximity: the principle that objects physically close to each other will be perceived as a unit or group.  Closure: the tendency to fill in missing information in order to complete an otherwise incomplete figure or statement.  Similarity: the principle that elements are grouped together because they share attributes such as size, color, or shape. 4. Identify errors that we might make when we perceive others.  Fundamental attribution error, self-serving bias, stereotyping, and using first impressions. 5. How is self-awareness related to communication?  Because when self-aware of your personality and which actions are open to you or not, it helps in communicating. 6. Identify and explain self-awareness, self-fulfilling prophecies, self-concept, self-image, self-esteem, and self-efficacy.  Self-fulfilling prophecy: the ideas that you behave and see yourself in ways that are consistent with how others see you.  Self-concept: the way you see yourself  Self-image: the picture you have of yourself; the sort of person you believe you are.  Self-esteem: the feeling you have about your self-concept; that is, how well you like and value yourself. 7. Identify and explain confirmation, rejection, and disconfirmation. Provide examples of each concept.  Confirmation: feedback in which others treat you in a manner consistent with you believe you are. Ex: you see yourself as intelligent, and your parents praise you for your excellent grades in school.  Rejection: feedback in which others treat you in a manner that is inconsistent with your self-definition.  Disconfirmation: feedback in which others fail to respond to your notion of self by responding neutrally. Ex. A student might write a paper that he thought was good, but the teacher had no encouraging remarks. 8. How can you improve your self-concept?  Have a goal or objective, make your goal realistic, find information about how to achieve your goal, exercise control and restraint, gain support from friends and family members, and accept yourself. 9. Identify and explain impression management. Explain the component parts of actors, performance, and face.  When you control the communication of information through a performance. That individuals are the actors. The performance is the interaction shaped by the context and situation. The face is the socially approved and presented identity of an individual. Chapter 3: Language and meaning 1. Define language and state several of its characteristics.  Language: a collection of symbols, letters, or word
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