Chapter 1: An introduction to the study of communication
1. Identify and explain how the process of communication is pervasive, amoral,
Pervasiveness: communication takes place wherever humans are together
because people tend to look for meaning, even when a message is not
Amoral: when the process of communication is ethically neutral: not moral nor
Agenda-advancing: using communications as becoming more effective in life;
being able to engage in agenda-advancing behavior in an ethical manner.
2. Identify and explain logos, pathos, and ethos. How can speakers use each of
these concepts in presentations?
Logos: making a logical appeal through: organization, credible evidence, clear
presentation of the evidence, and consistency.
Pathos: emotional appeal: concerned with how the receivers feel. Specific
examples and stories can appeal to the audience emotionally.
Ethos: the receiver’s perception of a sender’s competence and trustworthiness;
3. Identify and explain the SMCRE model.
Source, Message, Channel (5 senses), Receiver, and Environment. The
communicator has least control over the receivers and the most control over the
message. It helps in studying what elements, or variables, make up the process
of human communication.
4. Identify and explain the ELM.
ELM is the Elaboration Likelihood Message: a comprehensive theory of
persuasion. It it sis the likelihood that a receiver will elaborate the sender’s
message. There are two routes of ELM: Central and Peripheral Route.
5. Identify and explain how you can maximize the likelihood that your audience
will be motivated and able to process your message.
By using relevance. If a message is personally relevant to the audience, then
they are motivated d to process that message carefully. Also, tell the audience
why your message in important to them in the beginning of a presentation. 6. Identify and explain the various contexts in which communication takes place.
Interpersonal Communication: the process of using messages to generate
meaning between at least two people in a situation that allows mutual
opportunities for both speaking and listening.
Small group communications: communication that takes place among three more
individuals who are interdependent, share goals, identify with one another and
Chapter 2: Perception, self, and communication
1. Identify and explain why and how differences in perception occur.
Differences in perception occur because the way you sense the world is
subjective, unique to each person. Perception: the process of becoming
aware of objects and events from the senses.
2. Identify and explain how selection, organization, and interpretation occur
Selective perception: the tendency to see, hear, and believe only what you
want to see, hear and believe. Ex. Someone accused your close trust-
worthy friend of stealing.
Organization occurs during perception when there is a grouping of stimuli
into meaningful units or wholes. You organize it into: figure and ground,
closure, proximity, and similarity.
Interpretation: perception that involves a blend of internal states and external
3. Identify and explain figure and ground, proximity, closure, and similarity.
Figure: the focal point of your attention.
Ground: the background against which your focused attention occurs.
Proximity: the principle that objects physically close to each other will be
perceived as a unit or group.
Closure: the tendency to fill in missing information in order to complete an
otherwise incomplete figure or statement.
Similarity: the principle that elements are grouped together because they share
attributes such as size, color, or shape.
4. Identify errors that we might make when we perceive others.
Fundamental attribution error, self-serving bias, stereotyping, and using first
5. How is self-awareness related to communication?
Because when self-aware of your personality and which actions are open to you
or not, it helps in communicating.
6. Identify and explain self-awareness, self-fulfilling prophecies, self-concept,
self-image, self-esteem, and self-efficacy.
Self-fulfilling prophecy: the ideas that you behave and see yourself in ways that
are consistent with how others see you. Self-concept: the way you see yourself
Self-image: the picture you have of yourself; the sort of person you believe you
Self-esteem: the feeling you have about your self-concept; that is, how well you
like and value yourself.
7. Identify and explain confirmation, rejection, and disconfirmation. Provide
examples of each concept.
Confirmation: feedback in which others treat you in a manner consistent with
you believe you are. Ex: you see yourself as intelligent, and your parents
praise you for your excellent grades in school.
Rejection: feedback in which others treat you in a manner that is inconsistent
with your self-definition.
Disconfirmation: feedback in which others fail to respond to your notion of self
by responding neutrally. Ex. A student might write a paper that he thought
was good, but the teacher had no encouraging remarks.
8. How can you improve your self-concept?
Have a goal or objective, make your goal realistic, find information about how to
achieve your goal, exercise control and restraint, gain support from friends and
family members, and accept yourself.
9. Identify and explain impression management. Explain the component parts of
actors, performance, and face.
When you control the communication of information through a performance. That
individuals are the actors. The performance is the interaction shaped by the
context and situation. The face is the socially approved and presented identity of
Chapter 3: Language and meaning
1. Define language and state several of its characteristics.
Language: a collection of symbols, letters, or word