U.S. History: 1492-1877 Study Guide for Final Exam (Part 1) - 4.0ed this course

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American History
AMH 2010

US History AMH 2010 Unit Exam II Study Guide (Chapter 4 & Chapter 5) General Themes: British Empire Ideologies: Mixed Government Philosophy Mixed government, also known as a mixed constitution, is a form of government that integrates elements of democracy, aristocracy, and monarchy. In a mixed government, some issues (often defined in a constitution) are decided by the majority of the people, some other issues by few, and some other issues by a single person (also often defined in a constitution). The idea is commonly treated as an antecedent of separation of powers. Virtual Representation vs. Actual Representation Virtual • Designated representation • British perspective (person in parliament represents everyone) • No direct vote • British perspective • Person in office supposed to vote for greater good Actual 1. Voter votes for his representative 2. Ties to specific geographic region 3. He is looking out for your interests 4. What we have today Impact: brings together Revolutionary Issues Military Struggle Political Struggle Key Political Questions Ordered Resistance Ideas or Interests: Historical debates Age of Revolutions (Ideas) Key Terms / Events / Individuals: British Empire & Colonial America: Sources of Crisis Tradition of Neglect: (why) English vs. French rivalry (power & conflict) French & Indian War or Seven Years War 1. Local conflict (in America no French or British troops 2. International conflicts • Regular army in north America • Full international war 3. William pit takes over and British win William Pitt • Makes war successful for British • Changes method of war from impressment to compensation $ • Allows British to defeat French Consequences or Results of Seven Years War or French & Indian War 1. Colonists gains new perspective of British power (snobs) 2. British sought to re establish control of colonial trade 3. An increased hatred of English by the everyday American colonist 4. Colonist use war as justification for takeover of Indian lands 5. American colonists developed confidence in their own capabilities and identities 6. England contracted a huge debt and needed more finances to manage an empire (taxes) 7. Yet colonial leaders and elite felt a greater bond and pride with British after assisting in the war Burden of Empire (British) • Expenses Proclamation Line of 1763 1. Avoid conflict between colonists and natives 2. More expenses 3. Control colonial trade and colonies Parliamentary Acts & Colonial Resistance Writs of Assistance 1760-1761 Key Point: Blanket search and seizure warrants • Search warrants violate (legal and political rights) • Impacts on merchants (economic restrictions) Set precedent that British Empire will do whatever it wants Sugar Act 1764 Key point: vice-admiralty courts • Import duties (economic restrictions) • External tax: import and export goods • Vice admiralty courts (legal and rights) Stamp Act 1765 Key point: internal tax(political rights) • Special stamped paper affects almost all types of official documents • Economic restrictions, social and cultural implications • Vice admiralty courts (legal rights) Internal vs. External Taxes Internal • Within the actual colonies (stamp act) External • Fee on items coming into colony on imports and exports Impact (boycott) Declaratory Act 1766 Key point: Blank check for taxation and revoked stamp act • English and colonies view outcome differently • English saw it as just another act we will tax when we want to • Colonist saw it as a victory (stamp act) Quartering Act 1766-1767 (Mutiny Act) Key point: indirect tax or royal collection • This indirect tax or collection attacks colonial legislative power (political rights) • Allows the housing and feeding of British troops by colonists Townsend Duties 1767 (Townshend Program) Key point: tax monies go towards paying of governors salaries , thus control of Gov. moves away from colonial legislature to British parliament • New taxes on numerous imports and export goods Boston Massacre The Boston Massacre was the killing of five colonists by British regulars on March 5, 1770. It was the culmination of tensions in the American colonies that had been growing since Royal troops first appeared in Massachusetts in October 1768 to enforce the heavy tax burden imposed by the Townshend Acts. Tea Act 1773 Key point: allows England to create a monopoly of tea businesses in the colonies through East India tea co. and eliminates the middleman profits for merchants. Imposed a parliamentary law and taxation that would diminish colonial authority and legislatures and recipients would go directly to governors controlled by parliament • Unhappy merchants • Revived American passion of taxation w/o representation • Lowered cost of tea Boston Tea Party The Boston Tea Party of December 16, 1773, took place when a group of Massachusetts Patriots, protesting the monopoly on American tea importation recently granted by Parliament to the East India Company, seized 342 chests of tea in a midnight raid on three tea ships and threw them into the harbor. Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) Key point: enforced and consolidated British power and authority 1. Closed Boston harbor 2. Revoked the colonies charter 3. Provided housing
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