[ANSC 3272] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (22 pages long!)

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7 Feb 2017
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ANSC 3272
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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History of Animal Research & Experimentation
Mesopotomia (5000 yrs ago)
o Carvings of animal dissection on walls & tombs
Egyptian Pharaohs (2500 BC)
o Buried in elaborate tombs
o Anatomical drawings & surgical procedures for castration of boys
Humans & animals (dogs in particular)
Hippocrates (460-380 BC) Greece
o Physician coined Hippocratic Oath
First, do no harm
o Tried to come up with new techniques to do less harm
o Human Surgery
First to realize pre-surgery cleansing and after-care of wounds helped healing
Clean surgical instruments (boil)
Provision of facility with as much light as possible
First human surgery table (rudimentary)
Developed surgical instruments
Aristotle (384-322 BC)
o Performed animal experimentation
o Differences in internal anatomy between species
o 3 Animal-Related Manuscripts
Generation of Animals
History of Animals
Parts of Animals
Erasistratus (304-258 BC)
o 1st person credited with public dissection of animals
Galen (120-200 AD)
o 1st person credited with live animal experimentation
Ibn al-Nafis (1242)
o Blood circulation
o First to suggest that we should experiment on animals before performing human
experiments
o During the Dark Centuries (200-1500s)
Velasius (1514-1564)
o Taught in Italy
o Wrote a ook alled The “truture of the Hua Body
o 1st person to suggest that students in medical school should dissect human cadavers for
educational purposes
Sir William Harvey (1628)
o Father of Cardiovascular Biology
o Mausript titled Moveet of the Heart & Blood
Wren (1665)
o Performed first intravenous injection into dog
o Used quill from an owl as the hypodermic needle
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History of Animal Research & Experimentation
Stephen Hales early 7’s
o 1st measurement of blood pressure
o Used horse as a model
Bordeau (1775)
o Wrote manuscript describing lungs as air-filled organ
Claude Bernard (1813-1878)
o Founder of experimental physiology
Louis Pastuer (1827-1895)
o Founder of experimental microbiology
o Germ Theory of Medicine
John Morton (1846) Boston
o Nitrous-oxide containing gel to reduce pain; worked but did not completely eliminate
pain
o General Anesthesia is defined as total loss of consciousness and therefore, pain
o First general anesthetic diethyl ether administered by breathing
James Simpson (1847)
o Discovered chloroform
D. E. Salmon (1879)
o 1st veterinarian to be awarded DVM degree at Cornell
o Gastroenterologist
o Discovered Salmonella
o Appointed chair of committee for use of animals in research
Emil von Behring (1896)
o Discovered that diphtheria was caused by a toxin
Developed antitoxin for disease
o 1st vaccine bovine tuberculosis
o Discovered that tetanus was caused by tetanus toxin
Brown-Sequard (1899)
o Goal was to come up with anti-aging product
o Observed that castration decreased muscle
Could be increased by use of sheep testes
High levels of testosterone
Simon D. Brimhall (1915)
o First vet specifically working with lab animals
Banting & Best (1921)
o Partners studying diabetes
o Found if they replaced pancreatic tissues in diabetic dogs, they would recover
o Isolated insulin
o Discovered chemical structure of insulin and was able to synthesize it for medical use
Selman Waksman (1943)
o Father of Antibiotic Development
o Streptomycin
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