[BIOL 1108] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 39 pages long Study Guide!

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7 Feb 2017
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BIOL 1108
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Evolution Chapter 21
Evolutionary Theory is central to biology
A scientific theory:
o Is built using inductive logic
o Is unproved but falsifiable
o Describes a lot with just a little (a model of few parts)
o Makes predictions about future observations
o Scientific method
Core Concepts
o Genetic variation refers to differences in DNA sequences
o Patterns of genetic variation can be described by allele frequencies
o Evolution is a change in the frequency of alleles or genotypes over time
o Natural selection leads to adaptations, which enhance the fit between an
organism and its environment
o Migration, mutation, genetic drift, and non-random mating are nonadaptive
mechanisms of evolution
o Molecular evolution is a change in DNA or amino acid sequences over time
Core Concept 1: Genetic variation refers to differences in DNA sequences
Genetic Variation: fruit flies are much more variable in genetic make-up than humans
(10X more) and penguins (5X more)
o Adelie penguins are more than twice as variable as humans
o Humans have less flexibility/room for change in genome
o Fruit flies are successful at adapting to environmental changes over generations
Variable
o B is more variable
o A and B have the same mean (12)
o Variance: where measurements fall in comparison to the mean value (range
around mean)
o A has a low variance
o B has a high variance
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Statistical Variance:
o Is a measure of how far a set of numbers is spread out
o When zero, means all values are the same
o Gives a measure of how the data are distributed around the mean
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