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University of California - San Diego
Chemistry and Biochemistry
Carl Hoeger

Ch. 5 -Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle (HUP): it is not possible to accurately measure the position and linear momentum of a particle simultaneously -locating electron changes its momentum -Schrodinger: replace precise trajectory of a particle by wavefunction (a function that varies in value with position) -Born: physical interpretation -ZPE: a particle cannot have zero energy (n=/0) and so can never be perfectly still -Rydberg: general expression for determination of v and  for these absorption “transition lines” --if an e- goes up in n, v will be positive and E was absorbed --if e- goes down in n, v will be negative and E was emitted -Quantum numbers: --n: specifies energy, shell --l: subshells --ml: orientation of orbitals, orbitals within subshell -Attraction is causing e- to be sucked down while repulsion is pushing them away -shielding: reduction in full attraction of e- to nucleus due to repulsion of other e- -penetration: ability of e- in particular orbital to get close(r) to nucleus than another; more nodes, less ability to burrow to nucleus; closer you can get to the nucleus, the lower your energy  s orbital < p < d 0 for same charge --as charges increase, distance gets smaller, E(c) gets larger -formation of ionic compound: --An e- is removed from one atom in gas phase to form cation; endothermic; ionization energy --An e- is added to another atom in gas phase to form anion; exothermic; EA --The gas phase ions come together to form an ionic bond; exothermic --formation of solid crystalline lattice; highly exothermic Ch. 7 -electronegativity: tendency of an atom to polarize e- in a bond when attached to another atom -correctness of lewis structures --more covalent bonds, more stable and better structure --those structures where all atoms have an octet will be best --charge separation will decrease stability; avoid opposite charges on adjacent a
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