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Midterm

COGS 101B - Midterm 2 Guide

28 Pages
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Department
Cognitive Science
Course Code
COGS 101B
Professor
Sarah Creel

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COGS101BWinter2013
Instructor:SarahCreel
Midterm2StudyGuide
Learning
Fixedactionpatterns(characteristics,examples):Whatorganismsdoreflexively(biologically
prewiredthatalloworganismtothriveinenvironment).Usefulforstableenvironment.
● Initiatedbytriggersorreleasers
● Onceinitiated,runstarttofinishautomatically
Examples:
● Babiesgrasping/sucking,headturning.Actionsaidinnursing/nutritionandthereflexis
laterlostduringdevelopment
Yawning:Ifsomeoneyawns,wealsoreflexivelyyawn
Graylaggooseandeggrolling:Isanexampleofa“releaser,”whichisan
environmentaltriggerthatreleasesthebehavior.Thegraylaggoosewillreflexively
undergoarollingmotionwithherbillbacktohernestafteraneggisknockedoutofthe
nest,eveniftheeggisalreadyputbackinthenest.Inthiscase,thereleaseristheegg
beingknockedoutofthenest,sinceit“releases”thebehaviorofrolling.
Oystercatcherandlargereggs:Isanexampleofasupernormalstimulus.
○ Supernormalstimulusisanexaggeratedversionofastimulustowhichthereis
anexistingresponsetendency,elicitsastrongerresponsethatthestimuluswas
involvedfor.Thebiggerthestimulus,thebiggertheresponse.
○ Theoystercatcherpreferstoincubatethelargest“egg”initsnest(including
artificialeggstoolargetoincubate,suchasawhitebasketball).Evenifthenestis
alreadyfullwithitsowneggs,itwillrolltheeggbacktothenestsincelargereggs
aremorelikelytosurvive.
e.g.Candies,Mintchocolatesincomparedtofruitsornaturalsugars.
Candiesareasupernormalstimulussinceourbodyisnotevolutionarily
usedtoit→largersweetnessforuscomparedtofruits.(thanks)
Criticalperiods(characteristics,examples)
● Behaviorsthatseemtobelearned(orneedtobelearned)withinacertainbiological
timespan
COGS101BWinter2013
Instructor:SarahCreel
● Limitedtimeforlearningwherethereisextraplasticity(brainismoremalleableandmore
abletoencodethetypesofinfonecessarytothebehavior).Afterthistime,canbeharder
ifnotimpossibletofullylearnthebehavior
Foundinhumansandanimals(especiallylanguageandvision)
● Imprinting(halfwaybetweenbuiltinbehaviorandflexiblebehavior)
○ Ababyduckwillfollowamovingobjectandthemoreitfollowsthisobjectaround,
themoreitstartspreferringthatobject
○ Normallyamombuthasshowntooccurwithwoodendecoyducks,humans,or
evenabigredball
○ Onceimprintingiscompletetheduckwillnotreacttoanormalduckmom
LanguageAcquisition:LatelearnersofASL
ASLlearnerscanlearnthroughdifferentschematicssuchaslipreading
Buttherehasbeencases,inNicaragua,wherethesekidswhoaredeficit
wouldinnovatetheirownlanguageandthenthislanguagewouldevolveover
latergenerations.NowintheU.S,thereareASLkidswhoarebornintoa
deaffamilysotheyallcommunicatethroughsignlanguage.However,thereis
acontroversyissuewithkidswhoarebornintoa"hearing"familybecause
thekidaredeprivedfromlearninglanguageinputtheparentsarenotableto
communicatewiththeirkidstherefore,theybroughtuptheideaofcochlear
implants
Examples
JohnsonandNewport(1989)Lookedatlanguageproficiencycomparedtoageof
arrivalintheU.S:
○ GavepeopleatestofEnglishsyntax(askingthemtoidentifygrammaticalerrorsamong
nativeKoreanandJapanesespeakers)
○ Nativespeakersdidbest
COGS101BWinter2013
Instructor:SarahCreel
○ Ageofarrivalbetween37:comparabletonativespeakers
○ Ageofarrivalbetween810:starttoseeadownwardshift
○ Ageofarrivalinadulthood(1739):performedtheworst
○ Whatyoudon’tseeinthegraphisthatwithincreasedage,thereisnotonlydecreased
abilitybutincreasedvariability(anoldpersonwhocametotheU.S.latecanstillspeak
awesomeEnglish)
○ Evidenceofcriticalperiodforlanguageacquisitionbecauseatacertainage,itishardfor
youtolearnalanguageuptonativecompetency.
■ Differentexplanations:
● Youperformbestwhenyoulearnsomethingearlyinlife.
● Onceyoulearnalanguage,interferenceoccurswhenlearninganew
languages.
● Adultscanchoosetobeexposedtoacertainlanguageenvironmentwhen
kidshavenochoicebuttoimmersethemselvesinthatenvironment
NewportandSupalla(1989)Useddeafpeopleofallageswhohadahardtime
understandinglipreadingandlearnedASLasfirstfulllanguagesinceitwaseasier(all
had10+years)
○ YoungerpeoplewholearnedASLwerebettersignersthanolderpeople,eventhough
theyhadaroundsameamountofexperience
○ Showscriticalperiodeffects:Peopledidn’tlearnlanguageduringcriticalperiodareworse
(InterferencecannotbeanexplanationsinceASLisfirstlanguage)
Newport(1990):“Lessismore”hypothesis:thelimitedprocessingcapacityofchildren
maybepreciselywhatallowsthemtolearnalanguage.Thehypothesistriestoexplain
whythereisacriticalperiod.
Therearemanywaysthatsigncomponents(a,b,c)cancombinewithmeaning
components(m,n,o).Kidshaveworseworkingmemorysotheycanonlyconsidera
smallpossibleamountofcombinations/relationships,andthoserelationshipsaremore
likelytobecorrect.Forceskidsto“startsimple.”Adultswouldpossiblynotbebetterdue
tointerferencesincetheyknowalotmorematerial.Theory:Ifyoureduceworking
memoryofadults,thereismoreaccuratelanguagelearning(showninCochran
experiment)
Cochran,McDonald,&Parault(1999):Concurrenttask=bettergeneralization.
Madeupnovelsignandtrainedadultsineithernormallearningconditionsorwhile
performingconcurrenttaskthatrequiredprocessingresources.
Sincekidshavelowerworkingmemory(seeNewportexperimentabove)andledto
overgeneralizationofgrammaticalrules(generalization→moreaccuracy),thescientists
wonderedifloweringtheworkingmemoryofadultswouldalsohelpthemlearnlanguage.

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Description
COGS101BWinter2013InstructorSarahCreelMidterm2StudyGuideLearningFixedactionpatternscharacteristicsexamplesWhatorganismsdoreflexivelybiologicallyprewiredthatalloworganismtothriveinenvironmentUsefulforstableenvironmentInitiatedbytriggersorreleasersOnceinitiatedrunstarttofinishautomaticallyExamplesBabiesgraspingsuckingheadturningActionsaidinnursingnutritionandthereflexislaterlostduringdevelopmentYawningIfsomeoneyawnswealsoreflexivelyyawnGraylaggooseandeggrollingIsanexampleofareleaserwhichisanenvironmentaltriggerthatreleasesthebehaviorThegraylaggoosewillreflexivelyundergoarollingmotionwithherbillbacktohernestafteraneggisknockedoutofthenesteveniftheeggisalreadyputbackinthenestInthiscasethereleaseristheeggbeingknockedoutofthenestsinceitreleasesthebehaviorofrollingOystercatcherandlargereggsIsanexampleofasupernormalstimulusSupernormalstimulusisanexaggeratedversionofastimulustowhichthereisanexistingresponsetendencyelicitsastrongerresponsethatthestimuluswasinvolvedforThebiggerthestimulusthebiggertheresponseTheoystercatcherpreferstoincubatethelargestegginitsnestincludingartificialeggstoolargetoincubatesuchasawhitebasketballEvenifthenestisalreadyfullwithitsowneggsitwillrolltheeggbacktothenestsincelargereggsaremorelikelytosurviveegCandiesMintchocolatesincomparedtofruitsornaturalsugarsCandiesareasupernormalstimulussinceourbodyisnotevolutionarilyusedtoitlargersweetnessforuscomparedtofruitsthanksCriticalperiodscharacteristicsexamplesBehaviorsthatseemtobelearnedorneedtobelearnedwithinacertainbiologicaltimespanCOGS101BWinter2013InstructorSarahCreelLimitedtimeforlearningwherethereisextraplasticitybrainismoremalleableandmoreabletoencodethetypesofinfonecessarytothebehaviorAfterthistimecanbeharderifnotimpossibletofullylearnthebehaviorFoundinhumansandanimalsespeciallylanguageandvisionImprintinghalfwaybetweenbuiltinbehaviorandflexiblebehaviorAbabyduckwillfollowamovingobjectandthemoreitfollowsthisobjectaroundthemoreitstartspreferringthatobjectNormallyamombuthasshowntooccurwithwoodendecoyduckshumansorevenabigredballOnceimprintingiscompletetheduckwillnotreacttoanormalduckmomLanguageAcquisitionLatelearnersofASLASLlearnerscanlearnthroughdifferentschematicssuchaslipreadingButtherehasbeencasesinNicaraguawherethesekidswhoaredeficitwouldinnovatetheirownlanguageandthenthislanguagewouldevolveoverlatergenerationsNowintheUSthereareASLkidswhoarebornintoadeaffamilysotheyallcommunicatethroughsignlanguageHoweverthereisacontroversyissuewithkidswhoarebornintoahearingfamilybecausethekidaredeprivedfromlearninglanguageinputtheparentsarenotabletocommunicatewiththeirkidsthereforetheybroughtuptheideaofcochlearimplantsExamplesJohnsonandNewport1989LookedatlanguageproficiencycomparedtoageofarrivalintheUSGavepeopleatestofEnglishsyntaxaskingthemtoidentifygrammaticalerrorsamongnativeKoreanandJapanesespeakersNativespeakersdidbest
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