[HILD 2A-B-C] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (14 pages long!)

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UCSD
HILD 2A-B-C
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Society in Jeffersonian America
I. Drinking in America (1790s-1820s)
-Governor Dewitt Clinton of New York- party for 120 guests, provided 135 bottles of
wine, 36 bottles of port, 60 bottles of english beer, 30 cups of rum punch
-shoemakers had rum + molasses (blackstrap) breaks during the day
-birthdays provided for an excuse for glasses of whiskey
-when Dartmouth tried to put limitations on alcohol, a student said the minimum is 2-3
liters
-difference between drinking now and then was steady drinking during the day
II. Limited Diet of Early 19th Century America
-limited food in new/western territories like the Missouri territory, louisiana, and the
Michigan territory
-no refrigeration during the summer
-most people don’t have ovens, usually just fried over open fire
-recipes printed
-syllabub: cider, sugar, nutmeg, milk a cow into your mixture, and cream
-many used something strong (alcohol) to wash it all down
-the opening of the west led to more alcohol being available leading to alcohol
becoming cheaper (easiest way to transport wheat and corn from the west was in the
form of liquor)
-liquor in the west was so plentiful, it was used as currency
-this led to distilleries opening up so that farmers don’t have to do it themselves on their
farms
So efficient that the price of alcohol went down even more
-Americans at the time didn’t have water bottles, soda, and water fountains, so they
chose alcohol
-correspondence of early Americans full of the dangers of drinking cold water…
-water from shallow wells sometimes contaminated
-milk wasn’t most viable alternative either because of unpasteurized milk causing “milk
sickness”, and milk was expensive
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-by 1820, tea was significantly more expensive than alcohol and cider, and it was
looked down upon as an English aristocratic drink associated with monarchy and
bourgeois
-Americans preferred hard/fermented cider over regular apple cider
-culturally, drinking was associated with activities that brought people together,
particularly men
-also, there were taverns everywhere
-women on farms were too busy to have time to socially drink and socialize in taverns
-on election day, men liked to drink, gamble, then vote
-drinking became associated with sociability, politics, male culture, friendship, and
recreation
III. Why Society Didn’t Fall Apart
-time, discipline, work, and leisure are way different then and now
-we associate time with pay
-we have a clear distinction between work and leisure these days
-most jobs these days require an amount of steady discipline
-farmers then didn’t work by the hour, they worked to accomplish different tasks that
were determined by nature, usually worked sun up to sun down
-early American artisans and craftsman didn’t work according to the clock, worked by
the order
-in the countryside, artisans were also farmers
-they were self-employed
-in an artisan shop, working was a social activity, leisure and work were related, work
was sociable
-habits of college students most closely resemble pre-industrial patterns
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