MMW 13 Midterm: Midterm 2 Review Guide

6 Pages
Unlock Document

Making of the Modern World
MMW 13
Edmond Yi- Teh Chang

MMW 13 – Study Guide – Midterm 2 Review Guide Iberian Race for Trade Routes • Ferdinand and Isabella: Monarchs of Spain in the late 1400’s; sponsored Columbus’s expedition to the Americas • Columbus’s Expedition 1492: wanted to find a new route to India for the spice trade by sailing west; actually landed in the Bahamas, ‘discovering’ America • Cipangu: island in Japan; where Collmbus believed he could reach on his expedition • Treaty of Tordesillas: 1494; divided up the New World by the Pope into areas that Portugal and Spain could explore, with Portugal earning the east and Spain earning the west • Prester John: Myth of a Christian monarch; Christians would set sail on their explorations looking for him to ally with him • Conspicuous Consumption of Spices: spices became associated with status; the more spices you had and the more liberally you used them on foods, the richer you were perceived to be; even just having the spices to be visually consumed was considered a wealthy act • Cape Bojador: the point of no return; point on the West African coast where European sailors feared sailing past because the currents would not enable them to sail back • Canary Current: current along West African coast • Prevailing Trade Winds: winds allowed for trade, but could also be a problem if you navigated wrong and couldn’t come back • Volta do Mar: ‘return through the sea’; Europeans got better knowledge of the winds and currents, and started using the compass, so they were able to sail pass Cape Bojador and further out to sea instead of hugging the coast • Raiding and Trading Along West Africa: at first, the Europeans raided African towns in order to extract resources; but this created too much conflict, so they just started trading with each other, although they had to be careful to act on the Africans’ terms • Azores: islands off of the coast of Portugal; uninhabited; used for sugar plantations • Cape Verde Islands: islands off of the coast of West Africa; uninhabited; sugar plantations • Disenclavement: bringing previously isolated areas into the global network • Guanche: people of the Canary Islands whose populations were decimated by European exploitation, conflict, and disease • Sugar Plantations: discovered that sugar grew really well in the New World, so they started using the Natives and importing African slaves in order to establish sugar plantations; mass-manufacture with thousands of workers • Blueprint for Conquest: European exploitation in the Canary Islands and Azores would be the blueprint for future contact in the Americas; they would treat the Natives the same way The Portuguese Intrusion • Peripheral Status of Portugal: Portugal was a poor, small country that was mostly shut out of the rest of Europe due to its location; this became an advantage when exploring the world because they were so motivated to find something and be successful • Prince Henry the Navigator: Portuguese monarch who sponsored expeditions and the study of geography within Portugal • Economic Reasons for Exploration: Portugal was a poor country; lots of gold and other goods to be found in the New World as well as spices in the Indian Ocean • Religious Reasons for Exploration: want to spread Christianity; in order to gain support from the Church for these explorations, they had to promise to spread Christianity and convert the Native peoples • Vasco da Gama: 1498 first expedition; sailed down the western coast of Africa, rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and went to India; ravaged African towns on the way, kidnapping people and forcing them to show him the way to India • Calicut: place in India where da Gama landed and later governed as a Portuguese trading post • Trade Monopoly in Indian Ocean: Portugal established themselves as the power over the Indian Ocean; made people buy safe transit passes in order to pass through the area and trade • Choke Points/Transfer Points: Portuguese trading posts where merchants would have to pay heavy taxes on goods • D’Almeida in Kilwa: pillaged the city since the king sent him goats instead of gold and didn’t want to meet with him • D’Aleida in Mombasa: attacked the city, but they put up a fight; eventually it was burned to the ground • D’Almeida in Straight of Hormuz: controlled by Portuguese; warned ahead of Portuguese coming to attack the cities • King of Mombasa’s Letter to King of Malindi: warning that the Portuguese were coming an they were going to attack • Estado do India: ‘state of India’; Portuguese-controlled area in India, kind of like their second capital; da Gama served as viceroy • Viceroyalty in Goa: created after conquering the region; became a trading post • Don Afonso d’Alboquerque: came up with safe transit passes • Safe Transit Passes: Portuguese made everyone in the Indian Ocean purchase these passes; if caught without one, they would cut off your hands and take your goods; major source of income for the Portuguese • Gaspar Correa: da Gama’s brutality in Africa • Policy Toward Other Religions: more tolerant than Spanish since they didn’t have a set religion and they didn’t have as much Church influence • Demise of Portuguese Monopoly: conflict between conversion and exploitation; resurgence of Islamic powers; contraband trade without the safe transit passes Spanish Conquest of the Americas • Social Status of the Conquistadors: low-level nobles in Spain • Taino on Hispaniola: indigenous people of the island • Fray Antonio de Montesinos: missionary in Hispaniola • Dona Marina/La Malinche: Native woman who served as Cortes’s translator • Hernan Cortes: Spain conquistador who ‘discovered’ Mexico and formed alliances to overthrow the Aztec Empire • Moctezuma: Emperor of the Aztecs; greeted Cortes with open arms; superstitious?; Cortes kidnapped and killed • Francisco Pizarro: Spanish conquistador who conquered the Inca Empire • Atahualpa: last emperor of the Inca; captures by Pizzaro and killed • Quetzalcoatl: feathered serpent god of Aztecs; prophecy that he would return, some thought this could be the Spanish • Aztec Tributary System: believed that the sun needed human blood; would require blood sacrifices from their allies/enemies; made them unliked • Funciton of Human Sacrifice: to please the sun; fear • Huitzilopochtli: god of war • Tlaxcala: Yucatan state that allied with Spanish to overthrow Aztecs • Sahagun’s Account of Aztec Resistance: some tried to resist and escape, but they were surprised and overwhelmed by the military technology of the Aztecs • Cuanhtemoc: successor to the Aztec empire, led a revolt against Cortes and was executed • Pedro Alvarado: conquistador in Central America that was very cruel to the Natives • La Noche Triste: Cortes attacked the Aztecs at night • Cortes’s Siege of Tenochtitlan: starved out the city; allied with Aztec neighbors in fighting • Impact of Small Pox: devastated the Native populations; millions died Economic Exploitation of the Americas • Colonial Rationale: Missionaries vs. Conquistadors: Missionaries were often sympathetic toward the Natives, thought they had souls, wanted to convert them, thought they were fragile and innocent; conquistadors just wanted to make a profit and would exploit the Natives to do so • Suitability of Natives For Conversion: Natives had souls; were innocent, fragile; could be easily converted and were willing to accept the Gospel, they just hadn’t been exposed to it before that’s why they are like they are now • The Black Legend: inspired by De Las Casas’s accounts; Spanish legacy of brutal conquest in the Americas; used by other Europeans to justify their presence in the Americas/make themselves look better • Bartolome De Las Casas: was a conquistador, then became a priest and freed all of his slaves; advocate for Natives; inspired Black Legend • Disingenuous Efforts of Conversion: converting Natives was used as an excuse for labor • Encomiendas: system of exploitation that the conquistadors used; would have control over an area and a group of Natives, responsible for the safety and protection of the Natives; often resulted in abuse • Audiencias: judicial oversight by the crown on encomiendas; supervised by viceroy; Natives could bring complaints and have them tried • New Law of 1542: allowed the Crown to slowly rid themselves of the encomienda system and control the Natives outright in the Repartimiento System • Trial of Juan Ponce: Natives brought complaints to the audiencias against their conquistador, Juan Ponce, for abuse • Silver Mines at Potosi and Zacatecas: Spanish were very interested i
More Less

Related notes for MMW 13

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.