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University of California - San Diego
Making of the Modern World
MMW 13
Edmond Chang

Introduction 1. Europe’s “exceptional” heritage 2. “Vale of tears” medieval fatalism The belief of religious fatalism, that the earth is just a temporary place of exile before you reach heaven medieval fatalism 3. Theory of cultural diffusion The belief that the Western culture diffuses to the rest of the world in order for them to reach modernity. Western civilizations are more superior and more modernized. They influence the rest of the world to also adapt and enhance themselves. 4. Denial of Coevalness The belief that cultures never move in time. The West is constantly progressing while the rest of the world (the East) merely pivots in place without moving ahead in time. Western places are where all the historical events occur. The East can only move ahead in time if they start to adopt Western ideas and institutions. 5. Polycentric Globalism There was shift from polycentric globalism to European hegemony Mongol Conquests 1. Physical extent of Mongol expansion Caspian Sea to the west, Pacific to the east, Siberia and Korea to the north, and Persia and Burma to the south 2. Military strategies - Equestrian skills: skilled riders and users of the composite bow; few had engaged in hand-to- hand combat - No shame in retreat: They felt no shame in retreating as opposed to otherAsian mentalities. In fact, they often used the tactic of retreat to draw the enemy into a specified region and then surprise attack them - Terror as a strategy of warfare: They often killed and even used human civilians for shields out in the battlefield. This fear left many cities to surrender before they even started attacking. 3. Impact of medieval climate change There was a significant warming trend from 800-1200 C.E. This allowed for settlements in the north and at higher elevations. Places that couldn’t support agriculture before now could support it. Steppe nomads witnessed a population expansion. It also narrowed the “buffer zone” between nomads and farmers. As a result, this brought major tensions on the global frontier. 4. Genghis Khan The aggressive Mongol leader responsible for the increase and prosperity of the Mongol empire at its height. 5. Outer frontier strategy Nomads occasionally threatened sedentary societies with conquest. They did not want to rule them but only threatened as a way of extracting their wealth and resources 6. Jurchens in northern China Established the Jin (Chin) Dynasty in northern China. They were unwilling to give up their resources to the Mongols because they believed that they were stronger. This led to the Mongol- Jurchen conflict which left northern China devastated. 7. Khwarazm Shah of Iran Leader of the Turkish nomads who were also unwilling to make concessions to the Mongols. Ordered a Mongol official/ambassador be killed. He also decided to stop supplying resources and troops for the Mongols. For this very reason of defiance, a punitive mission was sent by Genghis Khan to destroy the place in 1219. 8. Ogodei Khan Wanted to turn all of northern China pastureland. Luckily there was a Chinese official who convinced him that it would be stupid and crazy. 9. Mongol tax farming a tax on farms. Uighurs and Turks were the tax collectors. 10. Kuyuk Khan’s letter To pope innocent IV Subject to them and bring tribute, if do not obey instruction, it means to have war with them 11. Religious pluralism - They understand the religious can overcome the exist culture, and provide culture diversity - Mongol tolerance and patronage of various faiths - Integrated empire facilitated the spread of religious systems. For example, as far as Eastern China, you would be able to find Christian churches and Muslim temples. It was the Mongol’s interest to promote religious plurality to minimize religious ethnic differences and to alleviate hostilities. 12. Economic network Provided secure and efficient infrastructure for trade Favorable policy towards commerce—paper money, financial system 1250-1350 a truly global network Yuan Dynasty 1. Khubilai Khan The ruler of the Great Khanate in Mongolian heartland and in China. Grandson of Genghis Khan; his power in many ways was accidental. Transformation from Mongol chieftain to a capable ruler of a sedentary society 2. Consort Chabi 3. Four Khanates(Ilkhans [Hulegu], Golden Horde [Berke], Chagatai Khanate, Great Khanate) - Ilkans in Persia (Hulegu) was located to the west - The Golden Horde in Russia (Berke) were to the east - Khanate of Chagatai (original heartland of the Mongols) was in centralAsia - Great Khanate in Mongolia/China (Khubilai) 4. Challenge ofArigh Boke He was supported by the Golden Horde. It was a costly and lengthy campaign. Ilkans supported Khubilai. Khubilai won by cutting off support of resources to the north in order to defeat his enemies. His victory made him realize that in order for him to keep power, he would have to govern the Chinese effectively and efficiently 5. Office for the Stimulation of Agriculture It was created in response to the economic recovery plan set out under Khubilai. It was created to support the peasants, abolish tax farming, and give farmers extra incentives like grain. It also prevented Mongols from turning farmland into pastures. 6. Ortakhs Muslim-ran merchant associations. They became the middlemen for caravans; in fact, they funded their use. People gave money to ortakhs and then they gave them out as loans with a small interest. It was effective in shielding the Mongols from being the “bad rat” 7. Paper currency The use of paper currency was enforced by the government.Anyone coming into the country had to trade in their silver and gold into Mongol paper money that was made out of mulberry bark. Everyone had to accept it as a form of payment. 8. Yambs or Postal stations They were typically 25 miles apart from each other. Each station had 200-400 horses to the disposal of the riders. Bells were placed on horses to abolish lag time. One could deliver something at 250 miles a day. Hostels were built next to postal stations for travelers and merchants to sleep. As some of the larger stations, hostels were divided up ethnically. There were ~ 1,400 postal stations total around the time of Khubilai. 9. Layout of Cambaluc Also known as the modern Beijing. Khubilai chose the location in the north because he would be able to keep an eye on the original pastureland and on the farmlands. He was able to find his delicate balance in his identity via the construction of his palace located in the capital. It contained a huge backyard garden and large luxurious statues like the phoenix and dragon. 10. Dual identity of Khubilai Khan Emperor of the Chinese and the Great Khan of Mongols 11. Mongol hierarchy of ethnic classes (Mongols, Semuren, Hanren, Nanren) - Mongols: political and social elite - Semuren: Mongol allies such as the Turks, Syrians, and Persians - Hanren: The northern Chinese, physically they looked more like the Mongols - Nanren: Southern Chinese, which had 80% of the population. They had more distinguished features (shorter and darker, racially discriminated) 12. Finance Minister Ahmad He was the finance czar from 1262 to 1282. His task was to increase revenue of the state because the khan had many public projects that needed funding and because he needed money for war. Ahmad did such a good job that he incurred the wrath of many Chinese government officials. He also did a very good job of setting up new tax payers that taxes increased by a hundred fold. Ended up being assassinated by court counterparts. 13. State monopolies The most effective source of revenue e.g Tea, gold and silver 14. Legacy of`SaiyidAjall in Yunnan Anointed to be the governor of strategic territory of Yunnan. This was important because a Muslim governor could facilitate migration of Muslims coming in from the west. He was a competent governor who introduced irrigation to the region, civilized the educated the population, did not impose his Muslim beliefs on the natives, and sinicized the natives using Confucianism. 15. Jamal al-Din 16. The Polos The book of Marco Polo Gives a description of the person of Kublai Khan, his palace and court, the city of Cambaluc, and something of the imperial machinery for the rule of China 17. Muslim threats in Mongol realm After a while, the emperors of Yuan China found Muslims to be a threat because of the large- scale religious conversions. Also, under the influence of Chinese government officials, emperors found Muslims to be threatening. 18. Accusations ofAi-hsueh (Aixue) 19. Anti-Muslim jasaghs There was prohibition of circumcision and cruel method of slaughtering sheep. Long standing Chinese attitude toward Muslim Ming Expeditions 1. Emperor Yongle Ruled China from 1402-1424 Out and out militarist--More success with the expeditions to the North, put the focus on the northern frontier, try to push back the Nomads to minimize the potential threat Unusual trend of maritime expansion 2. Ming Treasure Fleets Size - 300 ships, - 28,000 soldiers/sailors (the size of some land armies in nearby countries). - The largest was 400 feet in length, weighed as much as 3000 tons and had 9 masts - the largest “treasure ship”-Bao Chuan Purposes - Send them out on expeditions - Had a total of 7 grand expeditions, 6 of them during the reign of Yongle - Convenient excuse at the time. They “needed” to explore the region and find an imposed emperor. - They also wanted to increase Chinese presence in the Pacific and Indian Ocean regions o Military: securing trade routes and flow of tributes to China. Had to suppress piracy and their activities. o Cultural: extending cultural embassies meant increasing Ming Dynasty’s o Commercial: demonstrating the generosity and wealth of the Ming. They didn’t need anything else but only traded with people as an act of generosity. o Political: extending China’s tributary system. They didn’t want to annex territories but just to have influence over local politics. 3. Tian-fei or “Celestial Spouse” Chinese Daoist goddess called the Celestial Spouse The inscription to the goddess was carved on a stone erected to Celestial Spouse At Changle in Fujian province of China in 1431 Some Chinese believed in it, prayed to it and believed she could provide “miraculous answers” Reason why recorded an inscription in stone: got benefits of the protection of the divine intelligence (god) 4. Tributary system Because Mongol Empire was so imposing, other empires would bring pay tribute to them just so that they wouldn’t attack them. Pay and protect system. 5. Qilin or giraffes In one of the expeditions, giraffes were brought back and the Chinese thought they were mythical creatures because of their long necks 6. Pirate Chen Zuyi Became an admiral for the Chinese government 7. Rebel King in Sumendala He was captured and brought back to China, executed shortly after to show everyone else just how much power they had over the pirates 8. “Carrot and Stick” foreign policy - “Carrot” is opportunity for trade - “Stick” are the troops.All the ships were armed with troops and cannons. - Mongols were able to acquire 47 tributary states from the 7 expeditions - shift the balance of power 9. Admiral Zheng He (Cheng Ho) - Arab and Mongol ancestry - Family lived in Yunnan province - He wanted to go to Mecca for the sacred pilgrimage but couldn’t because he was a eunuch - Useful status as outsider—being a Muslim and eunuch made him the outsider of the traditional power basis (bypass the basis) 10. Malacca Extent of expeditions Each expedition went progressively farther 1-2 expeditions visit Malacca, established tributary relation and then return Five islands that was controlled by a chief Malacca—country of Manlajia—Zheng He set up a tablet and raise the place to a city—Xian Luo did not dare to invade it 11. Link to Hormuz 4 expeditions Integrating the world system Important for gateway---narrow that control the entrance into the Persian gulf( a lot of oil came out from it) Link between Chinese and Indian Ocean network with whole Islamic network 12. Confucian backlash After the death of Yongle Very brief time where China reasserted the expansionist policy. The expeditions were stopped and the lumber from these ships were all given to people of a particular region to be used for firewood to overcome the harsh winter Trade Networks in E. Africa 1. Myth of the “Dark Continent” a) View of Africa through the Prism of European Colonialism i) 19th century European justification of empire historian calledAfrica as "Dark Continent" Africa had always been lacked history 2. Meaning of the term “Swahili” a) “Swahili” as a Geographic Location---coast of EasternAfrica 3. Geographic shore, coastline of eastern Africa 40 important towns and islands dominated the network of trade mogedishu---north, sofala--south, prominate; important cities in between(kilwa, monbasa, modi) ambazy river: engage trader to the interior regions ofAfrica--allowing for goods from interior Africa to be brought out to the coast( ivory, gold, slave) 4. Linguistic (Kiswahili) “Kiswahili” as a Cultural Designation Dialects of the Bantu tongue 5. Cultural people have similar taste of clothing or architecture and lifestyle Islam played an important role in providing this large region with culture coherence 6. Ethnic composition Hybrid demographic composition derived fromAfrican groups best understanding: hybrid with persian, indian, arab elements Eclectic, permeable “macrocosmic” rather than singular, segregated “microcosmic” world 7. The “Shirazi” lineage 8. The Bantu tongue 9. Conversion to Islam most parts are local merchants--commerical opportunity--lucrative trading opportunity inter-marriage: marry local woman 10. “Macrocosmic” consciousness evidence to show the change of Islam to t
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