[MMW 12] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (41 pages long)

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MMW 12
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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MMW 12 Chang’s Textbook Note p240-245
The Abbasid Caliphate
In 747 Abu al-Abbas led a rebellion against the Umayyads, and in 750 he won
recognition as caliph
Damascus had served as the headquarters of Umayyad rule
Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad in 762 and made it into his capital
The geographical center of the caliphate shifted eastward to former
Sassanid territory
Created new ruling elite drawn from newly converted Persian families that
had traditionally served the ruler
Abbasid revolution established a basis for rule and citizenship more
cosmopolitan and Islamic than the narrow, elitist, and Arab basis that had
characterized Umayyad government
Abbasids worked to identify their rule with Islam
Patronized the ulama, built mosques, and supported the development of
Islamic scholarship
Provided the religious-political milieu in which Islam gained the
allegiance of the vast majority of the populations from Spain to
Afghanistan
Abbasid borrowed heavily from Persian culture
Claimed to rule by divine right like Persian tradition
Created a majestic palace with hundred of attendants and elaborate court
ceremonies deliberately isolated the caliph from the people he ruled
Under Harun al-Rashid, Baghdad emerged as a flourishing commercial, artistic,
and scientific center
Became an entrepot (trading center) for textiles, slaves, and foodstuffs
coming from Oman, East Africa, and India
Intellectually influential
Organized the translation of Greek medical and philosophical texts
Used slaves as soldiers
Acquired several thousand Turkish slaves who were converted to Islam
and employed in military service
The use of slave soldiers was a response to a manpower shortage; that as
highly skilled horsemen, the Turks had military skills superior to those of
the Arabs and other peoples; and that al-Mutasim felt he could trust the
Turks more than the Arabs , Persian, Khorasan, and other recruits
Administration of the Islamic Territory
New imperial system with Islamic conquest
Arab emirs (governors) were appointed and given responsibility for public
order, maintenance of the armed forces, and tax collection
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Umayyad caliphate witnessed the further development of the imperial
administration
At the head stood the caliph who led military campaigns against
nonbelievers
Had the ultimate responsibility for the interpretation of the sacred
law
Ulama interpreted the law as revealed inte h Qur’an and the Sunna
Later it became a rich body of law known as shari’a, which
covered social, criminal, political, commercial, and religious
matters
Ulama enjoyed great prestige and was consulted by the caliph on
difficult legal and spiritual matters
Qadis or judges
Central administrative organ = diwan
Collected taxes that paid soldiers’ salaries and financed charitable and
public works
Relay network to convey letters and reports rapidly
New and specialized departments such as the vizier
Was the caliph’s chief assistant, advising the caliph on matters of general
policy, supervising the bureaucratic administration and overseeing the
army
Fragmentation and Military Challenges
Breakaway Territories and Shi’a Gains
Regional dynasties that at times stop sending tax revenues to Baghdad
First territories to break away was Spain
Umayyad prince in 755 went to Spain and set up an independent regime at
Cordoba
946, Shi’a Iranian clan overran Iraq and occupied Baghdad
Caliph force to recognize the leader and allow celebration of Shi’a
festivals despite being Sunnis
Caliph was blinded later accused of plotting against the new masters
blinding= practice adopted by Byzantine to render a ruler
incapable of carrying out his duties
Marked collapse of Abbasid caliphate and became puppets and
symbol of Muslim unity until the Mongols
Fatimid conquered North Africa and expanded into Egypt finding the city of
Cairo in 969
The Ascendency of the Turks
Turks entered Islamic world in large numbers
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Document Summary

In 747 abu al-abbas led a rebellion against the umayyads, and in 750 he won recognition as caliph. Damascus had served as the headquarters of umayyad rule. Al-mansur founded the city of baghdad in 762 and made it into his capital. The geographical center of the caliphate shifted eastward to former. Created new ruling elite drawn from newly converted persian families that had traditionally served the ruler. Abbasid revolution established a basis for rule and citizenship more cosmopolitan and islamic than the narrow, elitist, and arab basis that had characterized umayyad government. Abbasids worked to identify their rule with islam. Patronized the ulama, built mosques, and supported the development of. Provided the religious-political milieu in which islam gained the allegiance of the vast majority of the populations from spain to. Claimed to rule by divine right like persian tradition. Created a majestic palace with hundred of attendants and elaborate court ceremonies deliberately isolated the caliph from the people he ruled.

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