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PSYC 101 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Interaction, Egocentrism, Computer Program


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 101
Professor
Gail Heyman
Study Guide
Midterm

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PSYC 101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Paper!- pg1 introduction"
!- second half of the first page discussion "
!- what the experiment did and how they did it"
!- option a cant have any quotes"
Exam 2
Piaget"
most influential psychologists "
reshape the idea that how we develop"
he was doing IQ test before -> starting pt to thinking about what happened"
knowledge begins with active interaction, starts from self"
!- he purposed the idea that children are sponges"
!- he see that they are actively moving"
!- they are actively constructing knowledge "
!- motor activity is important even for adult"
you building concept that become more accurately observe how the world work"
!- esp. with previous knowledge (experiences)"
!eg. prof talks about the example of child sees the earth is round but what they perceive !!
as round does not make sense to the kid ( kid draw people of pancake(( pancake is
round))"
!- ^ this active thinking of “how is the world round” give the kids spaces to think about
how "
Schemas"
like a computer program in your brain "
!-can be mental and physical "
!-more abstract as we older"
!eg. baby put the book in their mouth > when they grow older they learn how to read
the book ( how you interact with things you encountered) "
Cognitive development take place when try to connect exp and schemas"
Assimilation "
!- fit obs to schemas"
Accommodation"
!- change/improve schemas to fit obs"
>> First schemas are the reflexes you born with ( the only way you interact with the world)"
> Examples of assi and acco"
1) situation: baby is told by her dad that the picture is you"
assi: assume parents are joking "
acco: try to think about the pic"
2) situation: best frd betrayal"
assi: try to 安慰 yourself saying good about your frd"
acco: saying that frd never was trustworthy ( you change the schemas) "
Stages of development"
everyone go thru all stages "
Sensorimotor stage"
!- baby limited to the world right in front of them ( not about the past)"
!- what they see what they touch and what they hear"
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!> sensori substages"
!-reflex activity"
!- the reflex schemas ( sucking, looking, hearing) "
!!e.g. breastfeeding ( baby practice on it)"
Primary circular reactions"
!- you do sth and you like it so you keep doing it"
!!e.g. suck on their toes; sucking thumbs; blowing bubbles "
!- its primary coz it only do with their body"
!!e.g. when baby snoring "
Secondary circular reactions"
!- interact with object in the world"
!- like a loop coz they do it over and over again"
Coordination of secondary circular reactions"
!-younger than 8 month lack of object permanence ( they know that the object is here ! !
even they cant see them) "
!- combine previous schemas"
!!e.g. do one thing in order to get something ( pull paper to get keys)"
!- imitates action"
!!e.g when baby wave byebye (like their grasping schemas)"
!- A not B error ( maybe bb just get used to it in a automatic mode of reaching the same
place)"
!! e.g. baby reach the old place even the key is being put in the new place (and ! !
they saw it too) "
tertiary circular reaction"
!- still focus outside world"
!- experimenting actively"
!! e.g. squi the rubber duck and found that cute so the bb try more method
to get the rubber duck "
!!e.g. Throwing food ( exploration of the world)"
!- no A and B error "
Intervention of new means thru mental combinations"
!- first time they work out problems in their head"
preoperational stage"
-they not longer limited to immediate experiences"
!- delay imitation ( think back to the past)"
!- visual imagery in problem solving "
!! e.g. bb holding flower when pulling the door; she understands if you pull the ! !
door it is going to knock down the flower ( they imagine what happened without actually
doing it) "
!- symbolic play "
!!e.g. use sponge to imitate for phone"
!> limitation of preparation though"
! ! - child can only focus on one thing (centration)"
!!!e.g. class inclusion:: "
!!!- children trouble understanding one part of sth and whole group of sth> !
!!!7 buttons, 2 red and 5 blue -> Ask them whether the whole set is more !
!!!or blue more; on this age, children will answer blue buttons are more "
!!!e.g. conservation tasks::"
!!! playdoh rolled in round or stick; they will think the stick one is more !
!!!becoz its taller; the water cylinder too"
-she showed us video of kids on water cylinder and quarter counting"
(quarter counting: 2 rows of quarter, they think the row that is more far away has
more quarters) << conservation tasks"
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