[PSYC 104] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (48 pages long!)

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6 Feb 2017
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UCSD
PSYC 104
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 2 1/13/2015 3:39:00 AM
Paper assignment
2- 2.5 page paper describing and analyzing your experience violating a
social norm
Example norm violations:
o Not shaking peoples hand when situation calls for it (ideally a party
or social situation)
o Etc. etc.
Due March 2nd
Statistics and hypothesis testing
Flight school question
Israeli Air Force flight academy
o After outstanding performance, they praise them
o Subsequent performances they do worse
o This bothered them so how did they motivate them
o most popular answer was praise them intermittently
they should conclude nothing from it
this is most likely just a regression of the mean
the bell curve- normal distribution
most performances tend to be average
so when students do usually well then not well- is just the
probability of an extreme performance is really low so seeing
it again is unlikely
most likely thing is seeing an average performance
again
same with bad performance
Empiricism and the Scientific method
We cant observe many features of our world directly
We have to make inferences based on indicators
Important part is you have a hypothesis and then you test it
Two broad categories of research methods
Correlational methods
o Focus on measuring variables (eg. Thoughts, feelings and behavior)
in their natural state, and examining relationships between them
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Ex. Get pictures rated, then ask in a survey what their
experiences are based on other people
Idea is that you have one and you can predict another
Advant: Use their own daily life and measure that, easiest
ways to study the thing
disadvantage: its not causational, will not capture a normal
linear correlation, can be misleading if data are stratified
(salary of rural vs urban) so often you must look at the data
o The correlation coefficient
Direction of the relationship
Negative is like amount of tv goes up- test scores go
down
Strength of the relationship
Closer to 1 the more strong the correlation is
No correlation- is like test scores vs the temperature
outside
o Examples of correlations
Dog owners live longer and are healthier
Getting up and wanting to go on walks is better
Frosted flakes vs oatmeal
Hormone replacement therapy negative correlation with
heart disease, later discovered it increased the risk of heart
disease
Why? On slide- they chose the hrt- and therefore are
more proactive healthy wise at first- then later more
people do it and the risk goes up because more people
Experimental methods
o Focus on manipulation variables- examining the effect of
manipulations on thoughts, feelings and behaviors
Ex. Different attractiveness of someone dropping groceries
Disadv: artificial, but can be undone
o Expermimental design
Treatment and control conditions
Random assignment
o Hospital question (small, large)
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