ANTH316 Study Guide - Summer 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Mennonite, Anabaptism, Amish

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Fall 2018
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1972-Wisconsin v Yoder: Amish have right to run own schools, chose when kids end
Education (usually around 8th grade)
1930s-under Great Depression, consolidated schools, forced Amish kids to public schools
Amish farms: typical family farm prior to WW2
Not that old-fashioned way of life
Beliefs go back to 1500s, way of life-not so much
Police typically look other way to amish kids getting in trouble
Worried about violating religious freedom
Interaction with civil society is limited and on their own terms
Will accept modern medicine- but no insurance, pay on their own
Hegemony:leadership or dominance, especially by one country or social group over others
We do this to Amish-constantly questioning their lifestyles
1673: Amish and Mennonite split over issue of shunning
Shun from religious services or social ostracization?
People can only marry from another congregation if the 2 congregations are in
Amish only pay income tax, sales tax when necessary, or possibly other local taxes
Break the will: happen around 2 years old-corporal punishments
Hochmut: be proud, not going with will of group
Gamut: go along with group, nonresistance
Anabaptist presence increasing online
Traditional (20%)
Concentrate on preserving religious and cultural traditions
Separate from outside world
Buggies, speak PA dutch, plain clothing, selective use of tech, accept collective
authority of church congregation
Transitional (13%)
Try to maintain tradition
Try to reach out and help the outside world on a collective basis
Evangelism, plain clothing, no TV, encourage individual religious experience,
discourage higher ed, lay pastors (no formal religious training), nonresistance
Transformational (67%)
Want to transform to larger world
Willing to sacrifice tradition to accomplish that transformation
Higher ed, diversity in ministry, peacemaking and social justice, accept individualism,
large church organizations
Different types of groups can grow from the same congregation
2 Weaverland Mennonite congregations that separated due to a “pulpit war” around the time
of WW1: one traditional, one transformational
Sometimes a single congregations can have all 3 varieties
Sit in distinct sections within the church
Brethren have lost 32% since 1960
Some say bc they’ve lost their identity and to accommodate too much variability
European Beginnings of Anabaptism
Anabaptist movement began in Europe, but there’s only like 50,000 Mennonite still there, no
Amish or Brethren
As of 2010, about 750,000 Anabaptists in North America
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Most Mennonites outside north america either came from north america or were converted by
missionary activity
Early anabaptists in europe were viewed as examples of irresponsible religious fanaticism
1534: “Munster Revolution” crazy group of Anabaptism took control of city, forced polygamy,
communal property
Not typical anabaptists, but has colored perception of them until today
Henri Prienne 1936-criticized
Hector Hugh Munro-criticized
Anabaptists often equated with Nazi followers; misguided fervor for bad ideas
Many Mennonites were early supporters of Hitler
Real Anabaptist movement begins ca. 1500 in the Rhine Valley
Origin of PA “Dutch”
-Deutsch- originally meant anyone living in Rhine Valley and nearby areas
-German, dutch, france, switzerland, belgium, etc
-In english Deutsch became dutch
-In 19th century Dutch came to mean only German
Christendom: “Realm of Christ on Earth”
Anywhere outside of christendom was full of sinners and antichrist: “devil’s playground”
Germany was part of Holy Roman Empire
Perpetual conflict between power of pope and authority of emperor
1870: Otto von Bismarck unified Germany into modern form
1500: Holy Roman Empire highly fragmented- all authority localized
Constantly changing-wars fought by mercenaries
Everyone was fighting all the time
At the same time- major religious strife=more divisions
Martin Luther and his 95 Theses (1517)
Major theme-indulgences: should have personal relationship with god
1522: Ulrich Zwingli: criticized catholic church in switzerland
Ate sausage during lent in catholic protest
1531-killed in battle
Catholics cut up his body and burned it in horse shit
1536: Calvinism becomes popular in northern Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland
Each side saw the other as the manifestation of the antichrist
Religious problems exacerbate secular problems
1555: Peace of Augsburg
Cuius regio, eius religio
Local ruler choses religion for their kingdom
Variety of “official’ protestant churches result
Very tight link between protestant churches and gov/military power
More conflict: Christendom threatened by attack/invasion from Ottoman Empire
Christians have always had problems with islam
Taxation: based on number of people baptised: anabaptists don’t baptize children
Oh snap
Compulsory military service: anabaptists practice nonviolence
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Document Summary

Return to beliefs and actions of early christian church. Ex: protestants continued infant baptism: not in bible. Anabaptists saw themselves as third way completely distinct from catholics or protestants. Believe they"re the only church to truly emulate the early christian church. Saw themselves more closely related to protestants than catholic. Distinction caused persecution from both protestants and catholics. January 21, 1525: conrad grebel, felix mantz, george blaurock. February 24, 1527: michael sattlet wrote down the basic beliefs of anabaptism. Adult baptism: infant baptism isn"t in bible, only adults can profess belief. Church is a covenant community: church doesn"t need building or of cial leadership to exist, gathering of church members and actions give church its de nition. Refusal to swear oaths: if in legal settings anabaptists af rm they don"t swear. Rejection of violence: no military service, rejection of idea of just war . Exclusion of errant members from the church community: ultimate act of love .

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