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CGSC170 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - White, Visual System, Turing Machine


Department
Cognitive Science
Course Code
CGSC170
Professor
Kaja Jasinka
Study Guide
Final

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CGSC170

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Cognitive Science Study Guide
Natalie Testa
Lecture 1
Lesson 1.1 The Reaction against Behaviorism in Psychology
1. Cognitive Science
a. A newer discipline of the 1970’s
b. The study of the mind
c. Cognitive Science has the basic idea of the mind being an information-processor
2. Steps Towards Cognitive Science
a. There was a cognitive turn in psychology we turned away from behaviorism
b. Developments in the theory of computation and theory of information
c. Development of information-processing models of cognitive capacities and
abilities
3. Behaviorism
a. Behaviorism was (and in some quarters still is) an influential movement in
psychology.
b. Believes that psychologists should confine themselves to studying observable
phenomena and measureable behavior.
i. They should avoid speculating about unobservable mental states
c. Also believed psychology is really the science of behavior
i. This leaves little room for cognitive science as the scientific study of
cognition and the mind
d. Assumptions of Learning in Behaviorism:
i. ALL of learning is a result of conditioning
ii. Conditioning depends on upon processes of association and reinforcement
4. Conditioning
a. Pavlovian Conditioning
i. Depends on the association between stimulus and response
ii. Certain stimulus-response pairings are inborn and reflexive
b. Instrumental/Operant Conditioning
i. Classic example of this is Skinner Box
5. Behaviorism Problems
a. Issue is whether movement is made possible by:
i. Chained sequences of conditioned reflexes
ii. Knowledge of spatial relations
b. Latent Learning
i. Idea that information pick-up and storage
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c. Place Learning
i. Idea of information specifically about the environment (rather than the
organisms own movement)
d. Behaviorism couldn’t explain things like basic motor plans
6. Information in Information Theory
a. The mathematical theory of communication:
i. Centered on concept of information channel (vision channel)
ii. Studies how messages are encoded into signals and then transmitted to a
receiver
7. Model-Building
a. Components
i. Experimental data to be explained
ii. Task analysis
iii. Information-processing account of how the task can be performed
8. Theories of Representation/Processing
a. Digital information coding and information processing
b. Imagistic information coding and information processing
9. The Strong Interpretation
a. Subjects perform the task by rotating/scanning mental images in their “mind’s
eye”
b. The process of Mental rotation/scanning is structurally similar to physical of
rotation/scanning
c. Seems to match evidence from introspection
10. Problems with The Strong Interpretation
a. Who or what is doing the scanning/rotating
b. Where is the image projected? (where is the mind’s eye?)
c. Threats of regress if we take the metaphor of the “mind’s eye” literally
11. Kosslyn’s Theory
a. Mental images are temporarily generated from propositionally encoded
information in long-term memory
b. Mental Images “projected” into visual buffer
12. Marr’s Approach
a. Distinguished different explanatory tasks at different levels
b. Gave a general theoretical framework for combining the
c. Marr’s theory:
i. Information is derived from a series of increasingly complex and
sophisticated representations
1. Primal Sketch
2. 2.5D Sketch
3. 3D Sketch
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