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NSCI438 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Clinical Neuroscience, Mental Disorder, Behaviorism

Course Code
Rosen Jeffrey
Study Guide

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Clinical Neuroscience Chapters 1 & 2
Clinical neuroscience: understanding mental illness and pathology using neuroscience as
a tool
o Disturbances in brain structure and function related to mental illness
o Neural mechanisms implementing normative processes
Why is clinical neuroscience important?
o Contributes to development of new treatments/prevention efforts and refining
existing ones
o Identifies novel targets for treatment
o Medication and/or psychotherapy
o Refine diagnosis
o Base diagnosis on combination of data sources
o Understand treatment mechanisms
o Biological methods
Offers different data source
Complement to behavioral observation
New methods
Mental illness: related to mental processes that are considered abnormal and/or harmful
in some way
Stats are not a logical way to assess mental illness
o Subjectivity
What is considered pathological?
What makes up a phenomenon?
What distance from the norm is necessary to be abnormal?
Subjective definitions of mental illness = maladaptive behavior, distress &
disability, social deviance, harmful dysfunction
All have some pros but share the same con too subjective
Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM): consensus decisions about what phenomena reflect
mental illness
o Sets of criteria defining each mental disorder
o Practice: DSM dominated
o Research: less dominated by DSM
Not categorical
Clinical interview
o For DSM diagnoses
o Conducted by trained clinician
o Semi-structured interview
May deviate from prompts
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