ANT 2 Review.docx

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ANT 3520
Katie Rubin

ANT 2 Review Determination of Biological Sex • Sex (biological) versus gender (social) o Differences between sexes, between size and shape (sexual dimorphism) o Pathologists (don’t need to, deal with flesh) versus anthropologists (have to learn how to sex a bone) o Ususally one of the first aspects of the biological profile to be determined o Primary sex characteristics cannot be detected from overall gross examination of the skeleton o During puberty, humans begin to develop secondary sex characteristics • Bones used to determine sex o Skull (sex)  Brow Ridge • Brow ridge more pronounced in males • Brow ridge smaller in females  Mandible • Larger and more robust in males • Small and more gracile in females  Shape of forehead • Slopes posteriorly in males • More vertical in females  Inion hook • On very back of skulls in males  Mastoid Process • Large in males • Small in females o Pelvis (sex)  Subpubic Angle • Females have wider pelves with a larger circular birth canal (U- shaped/Obtuse) • Male pelves are narrower with a smaller and more triangular birth canal (V-shaped/Acute)  Ventral Arc only found in females  Sciatic Notch • Females have a wider sciatic notch • Males have a narrower sciatic notch  Sacrum • Females have a longer, narrower sacrum • Males have a shorter, broader sacrum o Angle of legs o Femoral head  Larger in males o Ossification of Ribs  In males, ossification occurs along margins of ribs  In females, ossification occurs more centrally o Carrying angle of arms o Best place to look is pelvis, than skull o Can’t determine transgender from skeleton • Non-metric/metric o Nonmetric- looking at/shape  Visual analysis of bone o Metric – things you measure  Cranial Metric analysis • Giles and Elliot method originally 82-89 percent accurate • Revised into Holland method 71-90 percent accurate  Postcrainal assessment • Femoral head o Females – Less than 42.5 mm o Males – greater than 47.5 mm • Humeral Head o Females – less than 43 mm o Males – greater than 47 mm Determination of Age at Death • Aging divisions o Growth and development  Until around age 12, good relationship between stature and chronological age  Gap of aging becomes wider as we age  Females tend to mature faster than males  Blacks tend to mature faster o Maturation o Degeneration (roughly starts at 30’s) o Metamorphic changes • Fetus aging methods o Most studies are conducted during the first 26 weeks of pregnancy because of increased abortions  Length of fetus – Haase’s rule • Square of each month to arrive at an estimate of crown-heel length • Child aging methods o Epiphyseal union  Occurs at very specific intervals  Fusion Pattern: • o Dental Eruption  Less subject to environmental perturbations than the skeleton  Can compare other teeth to estimate age  3 major molar ages  6,12, and 18 (when they come into occlusion, the bite surface) o Primary Ossification Centers  Can be compared to standards to obtain age  Ossification starts in middle and spreads  Wrist and hand is good place to look o Secondary Ossification Centers  Maturation begins when the secondary ossification centers begin to fuse to the primary centers  Very similar throughout population  Occurs in order: • Even Half-witted Archaeologists Know Which Shovel! • Elbow Hip Ankle Knee Wrist Shoulder  Clavicle is one of the last bones to fuse • 18-21 years old  Vertebral ring fusion occurs in three parts • Adult aging methods o Far less accurate and much more difficult o Metamorphic, Degenerative o Metamorphic  Pubic symphysis (more accurate) • We look at the face of the symphysis • Young has ridges – 24-30 ish • Old is flat and has bony growths 70+  Suchey and Brooks came up with a phase method to determine age o Degenerative  Can be altered/sped up by trauma (football)  Osteoporosis – creates light porous bones  Dental changes – Tooth loss • First and second molars are usually lost first • Usually can be used as an age indicator, although varies from population to population  Dental wear can be used to age  Osteoarthritis – age related degenerative condition of the joint surfaces • Why is it important to age fetuses? o Requirement of death certificate  20 weeks is a legal issue  23-24 biological liability Determination of Stature • Stature o There is a predictable relationship between limb length and stature o Populations closer to the equator have longer appendages than ones close to the poles o Since stature depends on ancestry, investigator must first make ancestry assessment o Increases with age until senility then decreases o Stature is 90% genetic o Males are taller than females o Methods  Fully’s Method • Uses measurements of cranial height, height of vertebral bodies, lengths of femur and tibia, and articulated height of heel • Requires all elements to be present  Second method involves first measuring one or more long bones than using a linear regression formula • Uses Terry and Hamann-Todd collections • Bones are measured on an osteometric board • Formula made with known individuals • Best bone to use is Femur • Combinations can be used, such as tibia and fibula • Based on age, measurements are subtracted to make up for aging  Anthropologist can take measurements between landmarks on fragmented bones and use linear regression formulas to determine age  Issues • Poor health, not fully descriptive of population, we change heigh
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