MMC Exam 4 Final.docx

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University of Florida
MMC 2604
Sunny Skye Hughes

MMC Exam 4—Cumulative and book notes only! 1. Agenda-Setting a. A media research argument that says that when the mass media pay attention to particular events or issues, they determine-that is, set the agenda for-the major topics of discussion for individuals and society b. Media tells us “what to think about” i. The more the media does stories on a topic/issue the more important it becomes to us ii. Mass media focuses their attention on particular events or issues, so they determine major topics of discussion c. One of the purposes of media 2. Analog vs. Digital a. Analog: in television, broadcast signals made of radio waves used before 2009 i. 1941 FCC adopted an analog standard for all US TV sets b. Digital: in television, the type of signals that are transmitted as binary code i. Binary codes= ones and zeros ii. Allowed for improved sound and image quality 3. Associated Press (AP) a. Formed in 1848, New York b. Originally formed by 6 NY papers in 1848 i. formed cooperative arrangement for sharing stories st ii. 1 major news wire service c. Enabled news to travel rapidly from coast to coast and set the stage for modern journalism d. Shared stories via telegraph lines i. Improved speed of news ii. Led to change to mass media stage from entrepreneurial stage 4. Bandwagon Effect a. An advertising strategy that incorporates exaggerated claims that everyone is using a particular product, so you should, too. 5. Banned and censored books (pg 306) a. Books are subject to a variety of censorship because societies discovered the power associated with knowledge and the printed word i. Imposed by various rulers and groups intent on maintaining their authority ii. Censorship of books prevents people from learning about the rituals and moral standards of other countries 1 iii. Political censorship sought to banish “dangerous” books that promote radical ideas or challenged conventional authority b. Ex. i. Some versions of the Bible ii. Karl Marx—Das Kapital (1867) iii. The Autobiography of Malcolm X (1965) iv. Salman Rushdie—Satanic Versus (1989) c. The internet allows digital passages of the banned books into nations where printed version has been outlawed d. Book challenge—form of complaint to have books removed from public/school libraries i. Done by the American Library Association (ALA) ii. Reasons: 1. Sexually explicit passages 2. Offensive language 3. Occult themes 4. Violence 5. Homosexual themes 6. Promotion of religious viewpoint 7. Nudity 8. racism iii. Examples: 1. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou 2. Forever by Judy Blume 3. Harry Potter Series by J.K. Rowlings 4. Captain Underpants series by Dav Pilkey iv. Top 5 Banned Classics: pg 308 1. The Great Gatsby—F. Scoot Fitzgerald 2. The Catcher in the Rye—J.D. Salinger 3. The Grapes of Wrath—John Steinbeck 4. To Kill A Mocking Bird—Harper Lee 5. The Color Purple—Alice Walker 6. Broadcasting a. Broadcast TV (local stations)—Decline in viewership i. national news has created a 24 hour news cycle ii. local news struggles to find content that will grab viewer attention iii. More global demographic b. Once an agricultural term that referred to the process of casting seeds over a large area, would come to mean transmission of radio waves (and later TV signals) to a broad public audience c. The transmission of radio waves or TV signals to a broad public audience 2 d. Toll Broadcasting i. AT&T began toll broadcasting, where people could record messages 1. Advertisers loved it 2. Offered opportunity for profits long after radio-set sales would drop 3. The public...not so much a. They did like the improved programming b. In 1929, advertisers spent $20M on radio ads e. PAST TEST QUESTION: broadcasting is a metaphor drawn from this industry. Answer: “farming” 7. Communication Act of 1934 a. Foundation for industry reg b. Charged companies with operating in public interest c. Created Federal Communications Commission (FCC) i. Regulated radio, telephone, telegraph, TV, cable and internet d. Congress agred to a system of ad-supported commercial broadcasting despite the concerns of the public 8. Common Carrier a. A communication or transportation business, such as a phone company or taxi service, that is required by law to offer service on a first-come, first-served basis to whoever can pay the rate i. Such companies don’t get involved in content b. PAST TEST QUESTION: which of the following industries is considered to be a common carrier...Answer: cable and telephony 9. Communication a. Communication is the creation and use of symbol systems that convey information and meaning 3 i. Ex. Language, Morse code, film/computer code, etc b. Eras of: i. Communication of tribal/feudal communities and agricultural economics: 1. Oral—original form of communication a. Cave walls 2. Written—people were scared this would eliminate face-to-face communication a. Formed language ii. Mass communication—process of designing cultural messages/stories and delivering them to large/diverse audience through media channels 1. Print—made better by printing press a. Machines replaced hand-copied text b. Duplication would occur rapidly c. Brought down cost of books d. More standardized thinking (cultural glue) e. Everyone could get hold of info f. More standardized thinking (cultural glue) g. Everyone could get hold of info h. Print is the extreme of alphabet culture i. Print is the tech of the individualism j. Technology is a tool that shapes an individual’s (and society’s) self conceptualization and realization k. Print detribalizes man l. Print is consumed by “yourself” i. Ask more of you ii. Ex. book you interpret it, where as a movie it’s the directors interpretation of book 2. Electronic—began with telegraph a. Radio/TV b. Tribalization c. Comm. Becomes faster, more efficient/convenient, kept info more relevant, etc 3. Digital—began with TV a. Digital communications—enables all media content to be created in the same basic way, which makes media convergence possible i. Image, text, or sound is converted into electronic signals represented as a series of binary numbers— ones & zeros—which are then reassembled as a precise reproduction of that image, text, or sound. 4 ii. Digital signals operate as pieces, or bits (Binary digits), of info representing 2 values yes/no, on/off, or 0/1. 4. Mass Media—cultural industries—channels of communication— that produce/distribute songs, novels, TV shows, newspaper, magazines, video games, internet services, etc to large number of people a. social networks b. Internet c. We all have access to send info d. Can make infinite number of copies/more easily replicated 10. Conflict of interest a. Considered unethical, a compromising situation in which a journalist stands to benefit personally from the news report he or she produces 11. Cookies a. Information profiles about a user that are usually automatically accepted by a Web browser and stored on the user’s own computer hard drive b. A common method that commercial interests use to track the browsing history of computer users c. Purpose i. Verify that a user has been cleared for access to a particular web site ii. Can also be used to create marketing profiles of web users to target them for ads 12. Copyright a. The legal right of authors and producers to own and control the use of their published or unpublished writing, music, and lyrics; tv programs and movies, or graphic art designs 13. David Sarnoff/RCA a. RCA creates a new company, the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) i. Red network- former AT&T ii. Blue network- former RCA holdings, Westinghouse and GE b. RCA refuses to buy FM from Armstrong.....they had already invested in AM and a switch would require listeners to buy a new radio 5 c. Debuted 1 TV at the World's Fair in 1939 d. 1918: WWI Ends i. US doesn't want to return control of radio to British Marconi Company ii. Solution is the RCA (Radio Corporation of America) is formed 1. Marconi sold its American holdings to RCA 2. RCA offers point-to-point communication over wireless a. telegraphy/telephony 3. RCA, GE, AT&T, and Westinghouse enter a cross-licensing agreement a. GE/Westinghouse would manufacture Radio b. RCA would sell it c. AT&T would build transmitters e. Licensing Agreement Breakdown/Evolves i. 1923: RCA made $11M from selling radio sets and $3M from telegraphy operations ii. AT&T can't manufacture sets iii. New Plan: 1. AT&T left broadcasting business 2. Gaines monopoly over wired connections linking stations in a network 3. RCA manufactures radio sets 4. RCA would get WEAF NY, which had been owned by AT&T 14. Demographics/psychographics a. Demographic editions: national magazines whose advertising is tailored to subscribers and readers according to occupation, class, and zip-code address b. Demographics: in market research, the study of audiences or consumers by age, gender, occupation, ethnicity, education, and income 15. Eadweard Muybridges/Horse in Motion 6 a. English photographer living in America b. Studied motion by using multiple cameras to take successive photographs of humans/animals in motion c. Horse in sttion: i. 1 project ii. Wanted to see if a racehorse actually lifts all 4 legs from ground in full gallop d. 1880—developed a method for projecting photographic images on a wall for public viewing i. Early sequences were brief because only a few photographs could be mounted inside the spinning cylinder that projected the images 1. Ex. Horse jumping a fence 16. Electromagnetic Waves/Spectrum a. Invisible electronic impulses similar to visible light; electricity, magnetism, light, broadcast signals, and heat are part of such waves, which radiate in space at the speed of light, about 186,000 miles per second 17. Ethnocentrism a. An underlying value held by many US journalists and citizens, it involves judging other countries and cultures according to how they live up to or imitate American practices and ideals 18. Fairness Doctrine a. Repealed in 1987 b. This FCC rule required broadcast stations to i. air and engage in controversial issue programs that affected their communities ii. when offering such programming, to provide competing points of view c. Ex. Smoking ads need to have ads about why it’s bad to smoke 19. Folk Music a. Music performed by untrained musicians and passed down through oral traditions b. Encompasses a wide range of music, from Appalachian fiddle tunes to the accordion-led zydeco of Louisiana c. TEST QUESTION: refers to protest and revolutionary music and music played by untrained musicians and passed down through oral tradition 20. Fourth Estates a. The notion that the press operates as an unofficial branch of government, monitoring the legislative, judicial, and executive branches for abuses of power 21. Four Theories of the Press 7 a. Authoritarian model i. Printing press era ii. General public needs guidance from the elite iii. “common good” b. Communist model i. State model ii. Press is controlled by government c. Libertarian model i. Radical expression of social responsibility ii. Encourages government criticism d. Social Responsibility model i. Mainstream journalism in US e. PAST TEST QUESTION: in the “Four Theories of the Press” model, the mothl that was common in England and the early American colonies in the 17 century that assumed people were rational with inherent rights, while the press was expected to act as a watchdog of government. Answer: Libertarian 22. Freedom’sstournal a. 1 African-American newspaper b. 1827-1829 c. Established a tradition of newspaper speaking out against racism i. Opposed racism of main NY papers ii. Offered public voice for antislavery societies d. Problems: i. High illiteracy rate among potential readers ii. Hostility from white society 23. George Melies/1 public theater in France a. Opened the first public movie theater in France in 1896 b. 1 director to realize that a movie was not a recording or reality but that it could be planned and controlled like a play 24. Guglielmo Marconi/Wireless Telegraphy a. Self-educated Italian engineer b. “Father of Radio” 8 c. Read Hertz work and understood that developing a way to send high-speed messages over great distances would transform communication, the military and commercial shipping st d. 1 attached Hertz’s spark-gap transmitter to a Morse telegraph key i. Would send out dot-dash signals e. Discovered that grounding (connecting the transmitter/receiver to the earth) greatly increased the distance you could send signals f. Set out to make telegraph/telephone practical i. They were limited by their wires g. 1896: Britain grants Guglielmo Marconi a patent for wireless telegraphy, the earliest form of radio i. 1897—London formed the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company (British Marconi) 1. 1899—opened branch in US (American Marconi) st h. 1901—sent 1 signal across the Atlantic i. Telegraph/phone businesses supported themselves through commercial means i. Both were point-to-point communications j. Telegraph i. Started the electronic era of mass communication 25. Gutenberg a. Associated with the development of the printing press b. Johannes Gutenberg i. Made printing easier by developing printing press (Germany) 1. Prototype for mass production was done in 1453 ii. Worked as a metal workers iii. Made money early on by making mirrors for pilgrims 1. May have used sand casting for mirror molds and then used method for printing iv. Began printing Papal Indulgences in 1450, as well as Latin Grammar Books v. Invented Oil-based ink 26. High/low culture 9 a. Cultural skyscraper i. High Culture—superior products at the top 1. Ex, ballet, art museums, classical literate 2. Identifies with good taste, more education, “fine art” 3. Symbolic expression that means “good taste” 4. Often supported by wealthy patrons and corporate donors ii. Low Culture—inferior products at the bottom 1. Ex, rock music, video games, etc 2. Symbolic expression aligned with the questionable taste of the “masses” who enjoy commercial “junk” circulated by the mass media b. PAST TEST QUESTION: in class, we created a Culture Skyscraper. Which of the following did our class agree was an example of low culture? Answer: The Kardashians 27. Indies a. Independent music and film production houses that work outside industry oligopolies b. Often produce less mainstream music and film c. PAST TEST QUESTION: the five thousand large and small independent production houses for music—also called Indies—are very important to the major labels because “they often initiate distinctive musical trends that first appear on a local level 28. Internet service provider (ISP) a. A company that provides internet access to homes and businesses for a fee 29. Inverted Pyramid Style a. A style of journalism in which news reports begin with the most dramatic or newsworthy information—answering who, what, where, and when (and less frequently why or how) questions at the top of the story—and then trail off with less significant details b. Method came from civil war reporters st c. Most important info goes 1 30. Kinetoscope/kinetograph 10 a. Kinescope: before the days of videotape, a 1950s technique for preserving television broadcasts by using a film camera to record a live TV show off a studio monitor i. Had poor quality, most series were not saved b. Kinetograph: an early movie camera developed by Thomas Edison’s assistant in the 1890s i. Combined his incandescent light bulb, Goodwin’s celluloid, and Le Prince’s camera c. Kinetoscope: an early film projection system that served as a kind of peep show in which viewers looked through a hole and saw images moving on a tiny plate i. Single person viewing system ii. Housed 50 feet of film st iii. 1894—1 parlor opened, featuring 2 rows of coin-operated machines (Broadway, NY) 31. Lee De Forest/Audion a. American inventor b. 1899—writes his dissertation on wireless technology
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