BCMB 3100- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 34 pages long!)
University of Georgia
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
[BCMB 3100] Comprehensive fall guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at oneclass.com
Unit 4 Lecture: Notes 11/10
ÃÂÃÂ¯ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ Proteins are the essential building blocks for cells, serve as enzymes, etcÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¦ TheyÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂre regulatory.
ÃÂÃÂ¯ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ Proteins are digested to amino acids.
o Trypsin is activated by enterokinase ÃÂÃÂ¯ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ it activates chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, and
o Each enzyme breaks down peptide bonds at 1 or more specific locations in a polypeptide
o Dipeptidases released by the duodenum split the small peptides to amino acids
ÃÂÃÂ¯ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ The liver plays a key role in protein metabolism.
o Amino acids can be broken down catabolic or anabolic
o Amino acids are used for protein synthesis
o The liver removes excess amino acids from the circulation, removes the amino group,
and produces ammonia
o Deamination of amino acids and the conversion of the amino groups to urea take place in
ÃÂÃÂ¯ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ§ Ammonia is converted into urea and excreted from the body
o Most proteins are synthesized in the liver.
ÃÂÃÂ¯ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ Excess nitrogen is excreted in 3 forms: ammonia, urea, and uric acid.
ÃÂÃÂ¯ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ Fates of the carbon skeletons of amino acids include:
o Keto acid is composed of 2 components: glucogenic amino acids and ketogenic amino
ÃÂÃÂ¯ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ§ Glucogenic- an amino acid whose carbon skeleton can be converted into
substrates for gluconeogenesis
ÃÂÃÂ¯ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ§ Ketogenic- amino acids whose carbon skeletons are degraded into acetyl CoA or
ÃÂÃÂ¯ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ Aminotransferase (transaminases)- a class of enzymes that transfer and alpha-amino group from
an alpha-amino acid to an alpha-keto acid.
o Transamination- the amino group is transferred to keto acid acceptor forming the amino
acid products regenerating the enzyme
ÃÂÃÂ¯ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ Urea cycle is critical to production of urea. This cycle converts excess ammonia into urea.
o Part of the cycle takes place in the mitochondria and part in the cytosol.
o Fumarate and aspartate are the direct links to the citric acid cycle.
ÃÂÃÂ¯ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ§ Furmate is a citric acid cycle intermediate.
ÃÂÃÂ¯ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ§ Aspartate comes from transamination of oxaloacetate which is also a citric acid
ÃÂÃÂ¯ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ The relationship between amino acid metabolism and the citric acid cycle is that the catabolic
breakdown of amino acids produces intermediates for the citric acid cycle. The anabolic
formation of amino acids uses intermediates from the citric acid cycle as precursors.
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