TXMI 2100 Final: TXMI 2100 final NOTES
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Department
Textiles, Merchandising and Interiors
Course
TXMI 2100
Professor
Bhat
Semester
Spring

Description
TXMI 2100 TEST 3 NOTES Dying and Printing By nature, some fabrics have their own color, texture, feel, etc. • May not be appealing or aesthetic • Humans change the properties to create more aesthetics and appeal o May improve performance o Give additional functionality Consumers want: • Aesthetically pleasing colors and prints • Color permanence o Will not bleed o Crock o Fade o Frost o Migrate Dying processes: 1. Solution dyeing-spun dyed fibers, dope-dyed fibers or mass coloration-occurs at pre-fiber stage and can be done only to manufactured fibers a. Permanency of color is much better 2. Stock or fiber dyeing-adding color during the fiber stage 3. Yarn dyeing-occurs after fibers have been spun into yarn or before the yarns are made into fabric a. Skein b. Package c. Beam d. Space dyeing-multicolor effect along length of yarn 4. Piece dyeing-dyeing after the fabric is formed-solid colored fabric a. Beam dyeing b. Beck dyeing c. Jet dyeing d. Jig dyeing e. Pad dyeing f. Continuous dyeing 5. Product/garment dyeing Special piece dyed effects: 1. Cross dyeing 2. Union dyeing 3. Tone-on-tone dying Color consistency • Level color throughout the dye batch with no streaking or bloching • Ensure color is consistent from one end of the bolt to the other and to the next bolt • Textile buyer must examine all products for consistent color Printing-uses pigments and dyes employed in dyeing and applies them in a pattern or design • Less damaging to environment • Wet prints-fabrics printed with dye and processing chemicals and dyes must be washed out • Dry print-fabric printed with pigments bc dry heat of curing process that sets the color • Main advantage of printed is the ability to produce design Printing methods: 1. Screen printing a. Hand-screen b. Automatic c. Rotary 2. Roller printing-similar to printing a newspaper a. Fast process b. Efficient c. Roller picks up the dye Types of printing • Direct printing • Discharge printing • Resist printing • Duplex printing • Warp printing • Flock printing • De luster printing • Burn out printing Special printing techniques • Heat transfer printing-thermal transfer o Sublimation printing • Photographic printing-photo transfer • Ink jet printing Problems with printing 1. Accuracy 2. Out of register prints-edges do not line up correctly 3. Off grain prints-do not follow length wise or crosswise grain of fabric Handcraft printing • Resist methods o Batik o Tie dying o Stenciling • Block printing • Hand printing • airbrushing Finishes: • give textiles properties they do not posses naturally o almost all apparel and furnishing textiles are subjected to some sort of finishing process o prepares textiles for further processing and enhance aesthetics and/or performance of the final product o many chemicals used for finishing are hazardous and the processes demand a great amount of water and energy o nanoparticles-innovations in textile finishing classifying finishes- • temporary/renewable/durable/permanent o temporary-removed by washing and dry cleaning o renewable-temporary finishes that can be applied o durable-expected to be effective throughout the life of the product • chemical/mechanical o chemical-applied to fabric in water or other liquid bath-wet finish ▪ resins-the chemicals used in wet finishes-most used chemicals in textile industry o mechanical-physical treatment that change the appearance and/or hand of the textile product-dry finishes • preparatory/aesthetic/functional-emphasizes customer benefits of the finish o preparatory-prepare the fabric for further processing ▪ can be grouped by those that clean fabrics, those that enhance aesthetics, or those that improve performance o aesthetic-improve the appearance and/or hand of product o functional-improve the overall performance of the product preparatory finishes that clean fabric: • boiling off • bleaching • carbonizing • de-gumming • de-sizing • scouring • solvent scouring • tentering preparatory finishes that improve appearance or hand: • enzyme treatments • singeing • optical brighteners • fulling • delustering preparatory finishes that improve performance: • cottons can be mercerized • silk can be weighted aesthetic finishes: • beetling-fabric is beaten with hammers o creates a smooth, lustrous surface on linens and fabrics intended to look like linens o temporary unless treated with resin • brushing-done following napping, sueding, or shearing o shearing may leave loose fibers on fabric that is removed by brushing burn out designs-created when fabrics are printed with a chemical solution that destroys some of the fibers calendaring- a mechanical finishing process • smooths the fabric and/or imparts interesting surface designs • simple calendaring • glazing • cireing • embossing • moire • schreinering chemical or abrasive washing-make garments appear worn or faded and have a soft hand 1. chemical-acid wash fabrics 2. abrasive-stone washed denim and sanded silk flocking-adhesives are used to make short fibers adhere to the surface of fabric • fibers may be flocked in a pattern, like polka dots, or all over the fabric napping/sueding: • napping-gigging or raising-rollers with small, fine hooks pass over fabric, catch the fibers, and pull them to the surface • sueding-the surface of the fabric is exposed to an abradant material that resembles sandpaper plisse-fabrics are treated with chemicals that cause them to shrink • considered durable but not permanent bc ironing flattens the puckers shearing-the nap or pile of a fabric is cut to uniform length-a design or sculptured effect may be sheared into the pile or nap softening-fabric softeners are applied to reduce harshness • often uses silicone polymers and ionic ammonium • temporary softeners are used in home and commercial laundries stiffening-many fabrics need stiffening to improve their body and hand • starches, gelatins, resins, and acids • acid stiffening-parchmentizing-exposes fabric to an acid and then immediately neutralizes the acid functional finishes- 1. shrinkage control a. relaxation shrinkage b. progressive shrinkage c. residual shrinkage d. shrinkage control methods i. compressive shrinkage ii. chemical shrinkage 1. chlorination 2. surface coating 3. resin treatment for cottons and rayons 4. resin treatment for wool iii. heat setting iv. sponging 2. resistant a. abrasion-resistant b. antimicrobial c. anti-rot/mildew d. durable-press i. procuring process ii. postcuring process e. flame-resistant f. fume-fading-resistant g. mothproof h. slip-resistant i. soil-release j. soil-and-water-resistant k. waterproof fabrics 3. others-specialized a. absorbent finishes b. anti-pesticide finishes c. coronizing d. light-reflectant e. heat-reflectant f. light-stablizing g. finshes that regulate temperature h. ultraviolet light-absorbent finishes Labeling: Interior Textile Products according to the FTC Federal Trade Commission-established in 1914 to prevent unfair methods of competition • expanded by the Wheeler-Lea Act in 1938-to cover unfair or deceptive acts/practices • responsibilities o investigate trade practice o encourage voluntary corrective action and compliance o highlight deceptive acts o legal proceedings if necessary o does not handle individual consumer complaints • functioning: o Bureau of Consumer protection-gathers data, monitors commercial practice, investigate reports, etc. o Energy and product information-focuses on energy-R value of insulation o Product reliability division-deals with Magnuson-Warranty Act ▪ MWA-governs warranties on consumer products What triggers an investigation? 1. Complaints 2. Congressional requests 3. Scholarly articles on consumer products Types of investigations: 1. Public-entire industry 2. Non public-individual unit Settlement steps (individual): 1. Voluntary 2. Formal hearing 3. Appeal FTC 4. Appeal US Court of Appeals 5. US Supreme Court Settlement steps (public): 1. Make a rule-How? 2. Publish a notice in the Federal Register 3. Open for discussions 4. Comments and suggestions-public hearing 5. Cross examination 6. Officer prepares a report 7. Issue the rule a. Mandatory b. Advisory Labeling-mandatory as per the rules and guidelines established by the FTC 1. Consumer protection-such as misinterpretation 2. Safety concerns-such as flammability standards Why labeling? -to inform and educate consumers and manufacturers on fair market practice 1. Get recognition 2. Quality 3. Care 4. Reliability 5. Specialty -to prevent unfair or deceptive acts/practices Disclosure of Textile Fiber Contents: (wool) • wool products labeling act of 1939-Wool-virgin, new-means fiber from the fleece of the sheep, lamb, angora goat, etc. • specialty wool name may be used-mohair is the wool from Angora goats. • Not reclaimed from wool products-MUST USED “RECYCLED WOOL” label if reclaimed o Recycled wool is obtained from wool products o Included reprocessed and reused ▪ Reprocessed-reclaimed from wool products before used by consumer ▪ Reused-reclaimed from post consumer wool Other fibers usually go by their generic names Registered number-of the manufacturer, provided by the FTC Country of origin: • October 31 , 1984-labels must show country of origin • Imported components sewing in the USA must have SEWN IN USA, not MADE IN USA • Applicable to mail orders Fur products-made of fur or used fur in whole or part of textile • FPLA-fur products labeling act • Applicable only to apparel • August 9 , 1952 New fibers: • Rayon-“artificial silk” • Followed by nylon • Then polyester • All man-made products confused consumers Textile fiber products identification act-TFPLA: • Effective march 1960 • Applicable to ALL fiber products-bedding, apparel, curtains, draperies, floor coverings, furniture covers, throws, etc o Including all fibers, yarns, and fabrics • Exceptions: stuffing, furniture covers, mattresses, box springs • Label contents o Constituent fibers- >5% by weight o “other fibers”-if 5%< o functional fibers go by generic name o Non-deceptive, truthful, voluntary info o Manufacturer or registered number o Country of origin ▪ Required by US customs for import and export control Have to be labeled in the order of the level of content of the fibers in the garment Highest content/% of weight is at the top, lowest at the bottom. Trade regulation rules on labels- 1. Size of the product 2. Caution-warning on what item contains 3. April 1974-“Care Labeling of Textile Wearing Apparel” a. ASTM D3136 for textiles b. ASTM D5253 for floor covering and upholstered furniture Trademarks-registered with the federal government, under protection of federal government Association of Contract Textiles-ACT- • Created in 1985 • Handles issues in contract fabrics • Sets performance standards • Educates industries • Set guidelines Contract fabric symbols: licensing-sell right to use licensed name/logo • Specific processes may be used, but features are not guaranteed Warranty-legal binding agreement • Helps in consumer satisfaction • Guarantees the long term satisfactory performance during the product’s lifespan • Fiber producers may offer to stand by performance of the fiber product • Spoken warranties are not valid o Only written • Details: o Warrantors name and address o Party to whom warranty is extended to o The products or parts covered in warranty o Define the properties or parts not covered o Period of warranty o Whom to contact in case of defect ▪ Step by step procedure o Who will pay for shipping, repair, etc. Implied warranties: not written, but consumers have the right as per state law • Warranty of fitness to the desired purpose o Does the product do what it intends? • It is not voluntary, it comes automatically with the sale o Electric blanket is supposed to heat o Outdoor carpet shouldn’t dissolve in rain Full warranty-a defective product will be repaired/replaced • Includes removal and reinstallation • Done in a reasonable time • Repaired in reasonable number of tries if not replaced or refunded-Lemon Law • Good for anyone who owns the product • No need to do anything unreasonable to receive warranty • Does not mean: o Covers entire product o Warranty is for one year o Warranty is for any length of time o Consequential or incidental damages are covered o In all geographic areas Limited warranty-consumer may be required to • Pay for labor • Deliver the product to service center • Pro-rata refund • May be only good for the first purchaser • Lemon Law is not applicable, but promises described have to be honored • does not mean: o product does not work as promised o product is inferior in quality o only a part is covered o covers cost of repair parts o warranty is for any length of time o service is only at a few locations’ Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act-written warranty-a legal binding of quality and performance for a defined period of time, assuming it is not misused or abused • Protects producers and consumers • Good for products >$15 • Warranty shall fully and clearly define the terms and conditions BETTER BUSINESS BUREAU: Sample labeling: a persuasive and effective marketing aid • To attract prospective customers • Defines popular names, styles, colors, and designs • Information given to attract, doesn’t mean it is useful info • Voluntary form of labeling Copy recycling chapter notes Interior textile products and fire: Flammability testing: • Used to measure fire-related behavior of interior textile products and components o Small scale procedures-size depends on item and specific test o Large scale procedures-fabric part of a fully upholstered furniture item o Full scale procedure-includes typical items found in specific rooms Small-scale test methods: • Methenamine tablet (pill) method-all carpets and rugs sold in the United States must pass this test o ASTM D 2859 and Code of Federal Regulations Standards 16 CFR 1630 (carpet) and 16 CFR 1631 (small rugs/0 o Rating: pass or fail • Forty-Five Degree Angle Test Method-can be used to evaluate the flammability of towelings o ASTM D 1230 Standard Test Method for Flammability of Apparel Textiles o Rating: class 1, class 2, class 3 • Flooring Radiant Panel Test Method-amount of heat radiating onto a floor covering directly affects the distance flames spread a Stage 3 fire o ASTM E 648 and NFPA 253 o Rating: class 1, class 2 • Smoke Chamber Test Methods-identifies materials that generate large volumes of dense smoke while burning o ASTM 662 and NFPA 258 o Measures light transmission as smoke accumulates o Rating: 50-450 • Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 302-designed to reduce deaths and injuries to motor vehicle occupants caused by vehicles fires, originating in the interior of the vehicles from sources such as matches/cigarettes o Rating: pass/fail • FAA Paragraph 25.853-flammability regulation for textile items used in compartments occupied by the crew or passengers in airplanes-evaluates after flame time, afterglow time, and char length o Rating: pass/fail • NFPA 701 Small-Scale Test Method 1-evaluates flammability of textile window covering o Intended for use with textiles and films treated with flame-retardant agents or composed of flame resistant manufactured fibers o Rating: pass/fail • UFAC Fabric Classification Test Method-designed to improve the ability of upholstered furniture to resist catching fire from a burning cigarette o Similar to NFPA 260 and ASTM E 1353 o Rating: class 1, class 2 o Welt cord o Decking materials test o Filling/padding • UFAC Filling/Padding Component Test-part A-used with slab or garneted filling/padding components that include, but are not limited to: battings of natural and man-made (manufactured) fibers, foamed, or cellular filings or cushioning materials, and resilient pads of natural or manmade (manufactured) fibers o Part B-used with fibrous or particulate materials that include staple of natural and man-made fibers, shredded, foamed, or cellular filling materials, and composites of any of these, together with any protective interliners that may be necessary to meet the requirements of the test methods • UFAC Interior Fabric Tests-test criteria identical to those for welt cord test o Rating: pass/fail • UFAC Barrier Test-defines minimum performance level for barriers materials to be placed between class 2 fabrics and conventional polyurethane foam in horizontal seating surfaces o Rating: pass/fail • Decorative Trims, Edging, and Brush Fringes-test criteria similar to those for the Welt Cord Test o Rating: type 1, type 2, type 3 • California Technical Bulletins o CAL 117-small-scale upholstery fabric flammability test ▪ Rating: pass/fail o CAL 133-scale upholstered seating flammability test ▪ Rating: pass/fail • Proposed Standard for Residential Upholstered Furniture-CFR Part 1634-main focus of the new standard is smoldering resistance, minimal reliance on fire-retardant chemicals, and compliance options utilizing barriers materials that can be used with any cover fabrics that do not comply with the smoldering ignition requirements o Under the proposal, manufacturers could meet the performance standard by using smolder-resistant cover fabrics or interior fire-resistant barriers to protect the furniture’s internal filling material, which is the primary fuel in an upholstered furniture fire o Rating: pass/fail o Three-part test ▪ Cover fabric smoldering resistance test ▪ Interior fire barrier smoldering test ▪ Fire barrier open flame test Large-Scale Test Methods: • NFPA 701 Large-scale Test o Stenier tunnel test o 16 CFR Part 1634 Upholstered Furniture-proposed o 16 CFR 1632 Mattress and Mattress Pads=smoldering resistance o 16 CFR 1633 Mattresses and Mattress Pads-open flame resistance • NFPA 701 Large-scale Test Method o Used with covering materials that show excessive melting shrinkage when tested by the small-scale test o Also used for evaluating the fire behavior of covering hung in folds, as in typical in window treatments o Rating: pass/fail • Tunnel Test Method-Steiner Tunnel Test-used for a variety of building materials, interior finishes and fabrics o Floor covering are typically evaluated using the radiant panel test o Rating: ▪ Class A-0-25 ▪ Class B-26-75 ▪ Class C-76-200 • Proposed Standard for Residential Upholstered Furniture, 16 CFR Part 1634 o Goal is to prevent ignition or slow the spread and intensity of upholstered furniture fires without requiring the use of flame-retardant chemicals o Under the proposal, manufacturers could meet the performance standards by using smolder-resistant cover fabrics or interior fire-resistant barriers to protect the furniture’s internal filling materials o Rating: pass/fail • The Standard for the Flammability of Mattresses, 16 Part 1632 o Established to protect public against unreasonable risk of mattress fires caused by a burning cigarette
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