[BIOL 1361] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (92 pages long!)

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BIOL 1361
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1: Biology & the Tree of Life
1.1 What Does It Mean to Say That Something Is Alive?
A. Organism - a life form; living entity made up of 1 or > cells
a. Cells - made up of membrane-bound units
i. Membrane regulates passage of materials b/w exterior & interior
b. Replication - organisms replicate themselves
c. Evolution - population evolve everyday
d. Information - organisms process hereditary, or genetic, info encoded in
units called genes
i. Respond to info from environment & adjust to maintain stable
conditions
e. Energy
i. To stay alive & reproduce, organisms have to acquire & use energy
ii. Ex: plants absorb sunlight & animals ingest food
B. 3 Unifying Ideas in all science (theory - an explanation for a very general class of
phenomena that are support by body of evidence)
a. The cell theory - basic unit of life,all cells come from other cells
b. Theory of evolution - charles darwin, organisms change over time
c. Chromosome theory of inheritance-Mendel; genes are on chromosomes
1.2 Life Is Cellular
A. 1665, Robert Hooke devised a crude microscope to examine structure of cork from
oak tree
a. Discovered pore-like compartments invisible to naked eye
b. Cells bc they resembled cells inhabited by monks in a monastery
B. Anton van Leeuwenhoek inspected samples of pond water and discovered single-
celled organisms that he called animalcules
C. All Organisms Are Made of Cells -1800s
a. Smallest organism known today - bacteria
D. Where Do Cells Come From?
a. Rudolph Virchow - all cells arise from cells already in existence
b. 2 Hypotheses (a testable statement to explain a phenomenon or set of
observations
i. Spontaneous generation (prevailing explanation of where cells come
from)
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ii. Cell theory - cells don’t arise spontaneously but are produced only
when preexisting cells grow & divide
c. French scientist Louis Pasteur set out to test its predictions in an
experiment
i. Two treatment groups that were identical in every respect but 1: a
broth’s exposure to preexisting cells
ii. Glass flasks filled w/ the same amount of nutrient broth that were
boiled for same amount of time to kill existing organisms
iii. Any bacteria & fungi that cling to dust particles in air could drop into
broth in flask bc neck was straight
iv. Results: broth in straight- necked quickly filled w bacteria & fungi
d. Chemical evolution - life arose from nonlife early in Earth’s history
E. Life Replicates Thru Cell Division
a. New cells arise when preexisting cells split
b. Charles Darwin & Alfred Russel Wallace - all the diverse species are
connected by common ancestry
1.3 Life Evolves
A. What is Evolution
a. Species r related by common ancestry (contrasted w/ prevailing view in
science @ the time, which was that species represent independent entities
created by divine being
b. Characteristics of species can be modified from gen to gen - descent w/
modification (pop view that species don’t change)
c. Evolution - a change in the characteristics of a pop over time
d. Population - group of individuals of same species living in same are at
same time
B. Natural Selection
a. Individuals within a pop vary in characteristics that are heritable - traits
can be passed onto offspring
b. In particular environment, certain versions of these heritable traits help
individuals survive better or reproduce >than other versions
c. Increased success in producing offspring makes trait more common in pop
over time
d. Natural selection acts on individuals, but evolutionary change occurs in
populations
e. Natural selection has caused populations of one species to diverge and
form new species - speciation
C. Fitness & Adaptation
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