[BIOL 4374] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (20 pages long!)

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BIOL 4374
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 1- 1/17/2017
Cell= fundamental unit of life
o Although cells are all very diverse, the underlying mechanisms are
fairly similar
o Essential characteristics:
Bound by lipid rich plasma membrane
Lipids= amphiphilic hydrophobic and hydrophilic
regions
Genome made of nucleic acids
Originally most cells used RNA, but now DNA is more
common
Can replicate autonomously
Cells and genome can replicate
Can synthesize proteins and/or RNA
DNA RNA protein
o The central dogma
o DNA RNA is transcription
o RNA protein is translation
Can regulate metabolism
Domains: originated through differences of rRNA and tRNA
o Essentially all cells on earth have rRNA
o Eukaryotes
o Archaea closely related to both eukaryotes and bacteria
o Bacteria
Microscopy- allowed for study of cells, to make distinctions between
different cell types
o Scientists:
Robert Hooke- made the first microscope, discovered the first
cell and came up with the term cell
Examined cork
Schleiden and Schwann- came up with Cell Theory
Pasteur- confirmed cell theory
o Microscopes
Light microscope= easy to use, good for cells, resolution is not
very high, can use for live cells
Fluorescence microscopy= stain structures in the cell
Electron microscope= very high resolution,
Some cells have a nucleus and some do not
o Eukaryote
Larger
More elaborate, specialized cell functions
Have nucleus and membrane bound organelles
These have specialized functions
Endosymbiosis of mitochondria
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Mitochondria have: double membrane, their own DNA,
and carry out metabolic processes
o Prokaryotes
Lots of diversity
In shape, size
Contain free floating DNA due to lack of nucleus
Are tough, resilient, can adapt to many different environments
Reproduce with great speed
All cells have a cytoskeleton
o Contains actin, microtubules, and intermediate filaments
o Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes have cytoskeleton
However, the cytoskeleton is different in both
Model organisms: studied, used for experiments
o Must be: short life span, small, cheap, and easy to manipulate
Manipulate the genome, etc.
o EX:
E. Coli= best characterized prokaryote
Yeast= best characterized eukaryote
Arabidopsis thaliana= best characterized plant species
C. Elegan= best characterized animal
Drosophila melanogaster= 1st animal model used
Zebra fish= simple vertebrate
C. Elegans are invertebrates
Mus musculus= model for mammalian cell biology
Certain organ systems are very similar to human organ
systems
o Like the cardiovascular system
o Therefore, we have more advanced approach
towards cardiovascular medicine than say
female reproductive medicine
The Atom
o Atomic number: the number of protons in atom
o The number of neutrons may vary
This can lead to molecular variants called isotopes
o Atomic weight= protons + neutrons
o Mass is different than weight
One mole= 6 x 1023
o One molar= 1 mole/ 1 liter
Human’s and living cells have much more hydrogen than the nonliving
Outer most electrons= valence through which bonds are made, etc.
o Covalent bond: when electrons are shared
Can be polar if there is a partial positive or negative charge
O-H bond are very polar, therefore water is a very polar
molecule
Nonpolar: C-H bonds, O=O bonds
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