COMD 1333 Final: Final Review

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University of Houston
Communication Sciences and Disorders
COMD 1333
Ross Byron

Study Guide Final Exam 23 MC, 20 FIB, 21 T/F The final exam is worth 149 points Fundamentals of Communication Sciences and Disorders 1. Be able to define, and identify examples of the 4 processes of communication, as well as describe some common communication problems that are associated with each: a. Formulation i. Getting your thoughts together ii. Communication issues from strokes b. Transmission i. Actually, sending the message ii. What modality do you use: gestures, speech, eye contact iii. Communication disorder: Cerebral palsy c. Reception i. Receiving the message from the sender (perception) ii. Communication disorder: Hard of hearing d. Comprehension i. Understanding the message, how you comprehend it determines how you respond ii. Communication disorder: Autism 2. Be able to distinguish between Grice’s Maxims/principles. a. These are the 4 components of effective communication i. Quantity: saying enough to get the message across ii. Quality: The truthfulness iii. Relevant: What you say should contribute to the topic iv. Manner: Abide by social norms 3. Be able to list and define the components of the Five Domain Model (phonology, morphology, etc). a. Form i. Syntax: Use correct order of words 1. Ex: Baby was happy smiling ii. Morphology: Internal organization of words 1. Ex: Morphines: walk/ing iii. Phonology: Speech sounds 1. Phonemes: C-A-T (put together is cat) 2. The flopsy will wimble the snobbit- the ability to find the nouns, verbs and such b. Content i. Semantics- Meaning c. Use i. Pragmatics 1. Consists of: using language appropriately socially 2. Social norms 3. Communication function where we know what to say and when to say it 4. Be able to distinguish between linguistic and non-linguistic feedback and provide examples. a. Linguistic Feedback: Verbal i. Ex: Saying “mhhhhhh” b. Nonlingustic/Extralinguistic i. Eye contact ii. Smiling or nodding iii. Occurs as a compliment to verbal c. Paralinguistic or “pairing” i. Voice character ii. Associated with lingusitc iii. Sarcasm iv. Change in pitch 5. Be able to distinguish between speech, language, and communication. a. Language Vs. Speech i. Language does not need speech in order to be meaningful ii. Speech does need language in order to be meaningful (sematics) b. Speech and language are types of communication 6. Be able to discuss common communication/difficulties associated with each of the major categories of communication disorders: a. Language i. Childhood language disorders 1. Problems occur due to issues with form or contact and/or use 2. Acquired disorders occur after birth 3. Developmental disorders such as autism are present after birth ii. Adult language disorders 1. Aphasia: language disorder in adults that results from damage to areas of the brain 2. Most common cause is a stroke 3. Language difficulties depend on what area of the brain is affected iii. Reading Disabilities 1. Reading skills are significantly impaired 2. Most common is Dyslexia b. Speech i. Articulation/ Phonological Disorders 1. Distortion, substitution and omission of speech sounds 2. Not age appropriate 3. Results from structural problems or misplacement of articulation ii. Fluency Disorders 1. High rates in the continuity of spoken language 2. Increased rate, prolongation and blocks 3. Secondary behaviors such as blinks and leg taps iii. Voice Disorders 1. Difficulty in communicating due to the voice 2. Aponia (NO VOICE) or Dysphonia (raspy, hoarse sounding a. Can be caused by rare disorders like hysterical aponia 3. Hoarseness often results from vocal misuse iv. Motor Speech Disorders 1. Omission, distortion and substitution of speech sounds due to neurological causes a. Apraxia: motor planning problems b. Dysarthia: looks similar: neurologically wrong v. CAS (Childhood apraxia of speech) 1. Foreign accent syndrome a. Characterized by changes to suprasegmentally speech leading to the emergence of perceived foreign accent b. Central nervous system damage c. Treatment includes accent reduction therapy and counseling c. Hearing i. Sensori-neral hearing disorders 1. Having loss that results from damages to the inner ear ii. Conductive hearing disorder 1. Hearing loss that results from problems with the middle ear (ear infection) or the outer ear (malformations) iii. Auditory process disorder 1. Problems processing speech sounds by the brain d. Feeding/Swallowing i. Pediatric 1. Problems with feeding and swallowing are often associated with premature, clefe palate/ lip or cerebral palsy ii. Adult 1. Dysphagia: swallowing disorder most often associated with neurological problems caused by strokes or dementia 7. Understand the role cultural differences play in defining a communication disorder. a. Culture is a set of values, beliefs, and customs shared by a group of individuals (can be racial, ethical, gender exc.) b. Culture has a profound impact of a person’s communication c. There are many dialectical differences in the US; does not mean a disorder Overview of Communication Disorders 8. Be able to distinguish between reduplicated and variegated babbling. a. Canonical babble AKA reduplicated i. 6-8 months ii. Reduplication of repeating vowel/consonant (DADA) b. Variegated babble i. 8 months and above ii. Repeated of different vowel/ consonant sounds iii. Pebbles babble  moving towards words Anatomy and Physiology 9. Be familiar with the definition of anatomy and physiology. a. Anatomy: refers to structure ( i.e ears and nose) b. Physiology refers to the function of a structure (i.e smelling and hearing) 10. Know the functions of the central nervous system and the structures that protect it. a. AKA the CNS i. Carries sensory information from the body to the brain ii. Carries motor information from the brain to the body iii. Damages to the CNS can cause many problems depending on where the damage is iv. Protection of the CNS 1. Bones a. Cranium and vertebral column provides the first line of defense 2. Meninges a. A series of three layered membranes i. 1 layer is the pia mater ii. 2 layer is the arachnoid mater rd iii. 3 later is the dura mater (most outer) 3. Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CFS) a. Fluid that circulates between the pia and arachnoid mater 11. Be familiar with the 3 parts of the brain and the functions of each. a. Initiates and regulates almost all sensory, motor and cognitive fucntions b. Control center of the body i. Brainstem 1. Directly atop the spinal cord 2. Relay station between the body and the brain 3. Regulates involuntary functions ii. Cerebellum “Little brain” 1. Coordination of muscle movement a. Maintains muscle tone (flaccid vs. spastic) b. Monitors range and strength movement c. Maintains posture and equilibrium 2. Maintains body posture and equilibrium 3. Limited cognitive role iii. Cerebrum 1. Thinking 2. Rationalizing 3. Problem solving 4. 2 mirror image hemispheres 5. Separated by the longitude fissure 6. Connected by the corpus colosseum 7. Communication between 2 hemispheres take place in the corpus colosseum a. Left controls the right side and right side controls the left 12. Be familiar with the 6 lobes of the brain and the functions of each. a. (1) Frontal i. Personality (frontal lobotomy) ii. Executive function iii. Broca’s area: responsible for speech production b. (2) Two parietal lobes i. Comprehending oral and written language ii. Perceiving sensory perceptual information iii. Math calculations c. (2) Temporal lobes i. Herschel’s gurus: interprets the auditory input (left side) ii. Wernicks Area: Language comprehension (left side) d. Occipital Lobe i. Process of visual information ii. Damage can cause blindness iii. Contraco injury (front/back) 13. Be able to list at least 2 of the 7 pairs of cranial nerves (and its number) that are directly related to communication. a. Trigeminal (V) facial sensation and jaw movement; including chewing (both) b. Facial Nerve (VII) taste sensation, facial movement (both) c. Acoustic (VIII) hearing and balance (both) d. Glossopharyngeal (IX) tongue sensation/palate movement and pharyngeal movement (both) e. Vagus (X) taste sensation, palatal movement and laryngeal movement (both) f. Accessory (XI) Head to shoulder movement, palate movement, pharyngeal movement (motor) g. Hypoglossal (XII) movment of the tongue (motor) 14. List and define the 3 parts of the hearing mechanism, as well as the structures and functions associated with each part. a. Outer Ear i. Outermost part of the ear ii. Pina (auricle) External Auditory Canal (EAC) Outer boundary of the tympanic membrane (ear drum) b. Middle ear i. Bony chamber filled with air ii. Eustachian tube runs from middle ear to the Pharynx and servers as a pressure equalizing tube iii. Inner boundary of the tympanic membrane and causes it to vibrate c. Inner Ear i. Fluid Filled Cavity ii. Mechanical Energy is converted to hydraulic energy iii. Located inside the temporal bone chambers d. List the 3 bones in the Ossicular chain i. Vestibule- entryway to the inner ear ii. Semicircular canal- organ of balance (perception) iii. Cochlea- snail shaped, fluid filled cavity; the organ of hearing; basilar membrane- different parts vibrate at different frequencies Communication Assessment and Intervention 15. Be able to distinguish between the 4 types of assessments. (Criterion, performance based, etc) a. Know characteristics of each i. Norm Reference 1. Compares individuals to typical peers 2. Falls in the ballpark 3. 3 qualities a. Standardization b. Normative sample c. Standard scores 4. Uniform administration (no help) ii. Criterion Reference 1. Performance compared to specific standard a. Clear interpretation of guidelines b. Clear standard performance same for everyone (such as a hearing test) iii. Performance based 1. Authentic Assessment 2. Situational: the assessment in context a. Work or class b. Commands are different c. Resutls show where to start treatment iv. Dynamic 1. Asses client’s skills with prompt 2. How much help do they need 3. Forms of assistance a. Auditory clues b. Visual levels of complexity AAC 16. Be familiar with the 4 components of AAC. a. Symbols i. Something visual, auditory and/or tactile that represents something else ii. Gestures, objects, pictures, print word, sign language, spoken word, drawing or braille b. Aids i. A physical object used to transmit/ receive messages 1. Computer 2. Chart or book 3. Electronics c. Techniques i. Method of transmitting 1. Direct select, eye scanning, sign, gestures or eye blinks d. Strategy (MOST IMPORTANT) i. Specific ways to use symbols, aids and techniques to enhance communication in specific situations 1. Everything you do to make the communicator understand 2. Increase message rate 17. Be able to define iconicity and identify the 3 levels of iconicity a. Relationship between a symbol and its meaning (ease of recognition) i. 1 level: transparent: visually resembles and high in ability to guess (pen is a pen) nd ii. 2 level: translucent: not readily guessable without additional information (pen is writing) iii. 3 level: not understandable even when the meaning is provided 18. Be able to define complex communication needs and some of the common disabilities that are associated with complex communication needs 19. Be able to distinguish low tech systems from high tech systems a. High Tech i. Computerized devices ii. Synthesize speech output (robot) iii. Navigation ability- button press opens new screen b. Low Tech i. Simple devices ii. Communication boards and books iii. Recorded speech output iv. More memory usage v. No navigational ability 20. Be familiar with the different methods that people can use to access AAC devices 21. Be familiar with some of the low tech and high tech devices we discussed in class. a. Low Tech i. Big Mack 1. Single plate switch ii. Go Talks 1. Digitized speech 2. Multiple layers 3. Limited vocab b. High Tech i. Dynovox t-10
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