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International Relations EXAM 2 [REVIEW NOTES] -- 4.0ed this exam!

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University of Illinois
Political Science
PS 280

PS 280 Exam II Notes PS 280 September 26 The United Nations Founding the UN − 1945 (Current Headquarters in NYC) o US-UK really pushed for it at the Yalta Conference: Roosevelt, Churchill − Key tenets of charter: Peace & Human Rights U.N Security Council − Strongest institutions that the UN has − Membership: 15 members, o 5(P-5) whom are permanent (China, US, Russia, France, UK) o 10 members who serve 2-year terms: Region equality to have representation from each region o These were the most powerful countries in 1945; to change the council you must have council approval (so countries in the P-5 won’t vote themselves out. • What if the SC was based on… Financial Contributions? : Japan, Germany Population? : India, Indonesia Regional Equity? Amember fromAfrica & Peacekeeping Troop Contributions?: Countries who put their military on the ground for UN actions(i.e. Costa Rica has no army therefore could never be on the SC) • Measurement Issues: Normalization by doing it by percentages − What can the Security Council do:Authority and Enforcement Powers o Authorize military sources o Impose sanctions on countries (i.e. banking, trading) o Authorize peace-keeping o P-5 have veto power GeneralAssembly − Memberships o 193 Members (Recently Joined: South Sudan, 2011 ; Montenegro, 2006; Switzerland and East Timor, 2002) o Security Council (P-5) votes first, and then the GeneralAssembly votes • i.e.: Does Palestine deserve a spot? US says no. • i.e.: Kosovo, issue of is it an independent country? Russia says no, so won’t let it in to the GeneralAssembly o Countries send ambassadors who act as ‘missions’ for their respective country • US has about 200+ • Small countries have small missions − What do they do? o Resolutions(World Opinion) o Free & Open Forum • Everyone no matter the size, gets a voice • i.e.: During the Cold War, Cuba and Fidel Castro would go on and on about the US is terrible Central UN Institutions − Secretary General: Ban Ki-moon(1/1/2007, 2 Term runs to 12/31/2016) o Term: 2 years o Chosen: By a rotating basis by region(The weakest/irrelevant one is chosen, not from a P- 5 country) o Role: Oversee UN bureaucracy, leading the UN to accomplish mission (peace & human rights). This position is a “perch” used to rally world public opinion around issues that wouldn’t necessarily have been addresses otherwise. o Influence: Done by creating a respect(MoralAuthority) -KofiAnnan (former SG) had moral authority Additional UN Institution − Economic and Social Council(ECOSOC) o 54 Members o Peace & Human Rights through UNICEF(vaccinations to poor countries for children), UNAIDS(aids treatment and prevention), WHO(global epidemics), UNHCR(refugee agency,) Discussion(9/27/13) − Non-state actors o IGO(States: Legally recognized state) • Legal power derived from the members itself and how much power they believe they have (cultural power) • WTO (Free Trade) • World Bank (Loans, Developmental aid, planning and training) • IMF(Currency exchange & loans) o NGO(Citizens: Non-government organization) • Have power in terms of raising awareness and putting pressure on government & also have as much power as they believe they have − Reading (The Inside Story of Russia’s Fight to Keep the UN Corrupt ; Colum Lynch) o Issue: Russia’s unfair advantage of supplying of aircraft to the UN o How powerful the P-5 is in shaping the UN and their policies o Reform in the UN is very difficult and if it conflicts with interests of the powerful states(i.e. P-5) then it will most likely never happen o If you leave the UN: Makes you look selfish and you as a country are not worried about the world but just your own states well being PS 280 October 1 Additional UN Institutions − Economic and Social Council or ‘ECSOC” (54 members – and they are member-states) o UNICEF, UNAIDS, WHO, UNHCR − International Court of Justice (pretty weak court; only hears cases between member countries; has had a pretty limited impact in international affairs) o “World Court” o 15 justices/9 year terms o ~3 cases per year UN Peacekeeping (there is nothing in the UN charter that permits UN peacekeeping; this is a reading between the lines; something that developed over time) − 1 Generation: occurs in the Cold War; only 13 UN peacekeeping operations then (40 years of that many missions; very limited); did not have much of a strong peacekeeping role during the Cold War; extremely limited mandates – essentially stood on a line and separate warring factions; all they did was report/monitor/guard − 2 Generation: began with Somalia in ’92; the UN’s ambitions grew (in part because the Soviet Union collapsed and were more willing to work through the UN forum); the UN takes on new peacekeeping operations o 15 current operations o UN peacekeeping operations occur because the UN security council has authorized them o Mandate is much broader: also deliver humanitarian goods, guard schools, guard roads so you can help the economy and transfer goods around, register people to vote, guard people when they vote, etc.  Much more “engaged” − Broad mandates o “Successes”  Mozambique, East Timor – helped Mozambique recover after its civil war; went into East Timor and set up a government and in effect the UN was actually the government for a couple years (helped them move out of a military crisis with Indonesia and gain democracy) o “Failures”  Somalia, Rwanda, Bosnia, DRC – Somalia is where we got the term “nation building” (they went in to bring Somalia aid, but that wasn’t really enough, decided that they needed to do more, it was very unsuccessful); Rwanda was a peacekeeping operation on the ground, some Rwandan factions looked at Somalia and killed 11 Belgian peacekeepers publicly to get the UN out,; Bosnia was another failure because the UN went in to help and dropped stuff from the air from 1500 feet (were so afraid troops would get shot), created “safe enclaves” (if you on the safe enclave, you couldn’t get hurt there), but that didn’t work, UN was being mocked at this point; DRC was another example where we saw awful violence and the UN couldn’t really bring the factions to peace o The UN is just a collection of member countries willing to participate in peacekeeping operations  Plus, measuring peacekeeping success is very hard because it’s hard to measure/guess what would happen if the peacekeepers were not there Financing the UN − Four main budgets o Regular, peacekeeping, voluntary, courts/testimonials  Regular: general operating expenses – salaries, air conditioners, new carpet, etc.  Voluntary: these are contributions – some countries are very sympathetic to certain UN agencies and they contribute  Courts/tribunals: NOT the ICJ (that’s the regular budgets) – there are also war crimes courts and the ICC; these are funded differently − Main contributors to Regular Budget o $2.575B annually o US: 22 percent (around $600 million) o Japan: 13 percent o Germany: 8 percent o ~70 percent of states are assessed $25,852 • Most states are poor so this is the minimum amount you can be assessed The UN works on a progressive tax system – the wealthy states pay more and there is an actual equation for this Power politics – the United States has said that they don’t want to pay as much as they’re assessed so they push other countries to pay more; the US has pushed their number much, much lower than what some believe the assessment actually is There is waste because the UN is a bureaucracy Final Points on the United Nations − Alternatives? o NATO, European Union orAfrican Union?  NATO is a military alliance and they’re all European except for us and Canada (so no); the EU has a security component and does peacekeeping, but it’s a primarily economic organization based on strengthening Europe’s economy (so no), theAfrican Union is weak military and peacekeeping-wise − Challenges to “Collective Security” idea: o Differences over Iran and Syria o Vote on Libya (10-0-5) o Realism remains – still structures many foreign policies (national interest comes first) PS 280 October 3 Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) NGOS − What it there role? o Enormous Growth in all fields • Increasing with more democracies in the world o NGO Activities: “IssueAdvocacy” in IR • Research/Oversight -Publish research and get your world out -“Think Tanks”: who do social science research full time and advocate for their cause • Lobbying -Advocate for certain group/beliefs -An UN, 1,000 NGOs have consultation status at UN • Business and Trade -Multinational Corporations (MNCs) • Policy Implementation and Policy Creation -Groups that work directly government to help them make and carry out policy (especially strong NGOs) -Coca-Cola: public-private partnership in Tanzania with medicine -Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation: organization that was all of Bill & Melinda Gates & Warren Buffets money- so many different area within Global Health, Development, & Policy/Advocacy. -The Hall Steps Foundation (Runners-Ryan & Sara Hall) Humanitarian Advocacy NGOs o Human Rights • Amnesty International: Puts pressure on governments to respect human rights • Human Rights Watch: Has specific regions, and does so by placing pressure on governments to change • ICRC(International Committee of the Red Cross): Human rights orientated that just deals with prisoners of war. The only NGO mentioned in the UN Charter. Swiss base organization therefore practices a realm of neutrality. o International Committee to Ban Land Mines • Jody Williams: 1997 Nobel Peace Prize for getting NGOs to work & collaborate together o Religious Organizations: • “transitional movements” o International Olympic Committee • Foster the “Olympic Movement,” creates the promotion of the sport and creating a community of world athletes • South Africa Team Example Jesuits o Pope Francis is a Jesuit o NGOs • Jesuit Refugee Services • Jesuit Volunteer Crops(JVC): Peace Corps of the US • JesuitAIDS network: Help reduce the number of people with aids • Vatican: 106 embassies Indigenous Populations as NGOs o Groups of native populations that live apart/outside of the government • Wide presence: 370 million people, 5.4% of the population o Political Significance • Extinction Issue: As the world shrinks and more pressure(globalization), • “Ethnic Conflict” • Thomas Friedman’s : The World is Flat o Huntington vs. Fukuyama • H argues that as these two developments occur simultaneously, we will get conflict and a “clash of civilizations” that will result in warfare • F argues that at the end of the Cold War democracy and capitalism have won out, and we are heading toward more similarities and ultimately the “end of history” Multinational Corporations (MNCs) as NGOs o Also referred to as TNCs(Transnational Corporations) o Presence & Growth • Banking, automobiles, restaurants, insurance, IT • Wendy’s/Arby’s > New Growth in 2010 o Home/Host State • Home states historically located in the developed world(wealthy states) • Host sites are in the developed part of the world • New growth in “Global South” -i.e. Cinnabon: President Kat Cole is taking Cinnabon all over the world. 100 new locations in Russia in last 3 years, 205 new international locations in 2012 (middle east expansion), just opened in Tripoli Libya (Dec ’12, just after we were bombing them). o Wal-Mart at an MNC • World’s Largest MNC: more revenue than Norway, twice as large as Portugal • Stores in 27 countries outside of US/6,242 stores • New markets: India, Canada, China, Brazil, and across Africa • Charles Fishes Wal-Mart Effect -PROS: Low price, job creation/spillover effect into other businesses, peace (internal and external) -CONS: Cultural change, labor issues, environment, “unfair” competition • Wal-Mart(MNC) Impact in IR -US Chilean relations: free trade pressures and more closely linked economies -NGO activism: Environment and labor groups; challenges state sovereignty -Canada and Norway face new competition -Globalization of world economy PS 280 October 8 Terrorism Research in IR o Definition: What/Who constitutes a terrorist is not self-evident. • Three main ideas of terrorism: psychological impact/fear, civilian casualties and political objective • i.e. terrorist entities 1. Irish RepublicanArmy(IRA): Drop off bombs in London and in bus stations as they has good relationships with the London police and wanted to give people heads up about their threat and take credit for it. IRAthinks they are moral and receives much of their funding from US major cities. 2. Hezbollah in southern Lebanon: Creates/funds parks & fires rockets into Israel and support suicide missions 3. Hamas in Gaza Strip/Palestine: legitimately elected but supports suicide terrorism in Israel 4. ETA-Basques in Northern Spain: Live in the state of Basques, also drops off bombs in area of Spain 5. Timothy McVeigh-1995 Oklahoma City bombing: Where was his political objective? o Different Kinds of Terrorism: High-jacking suicide terrorism, state-sponsored • Current Data and Trends 1. Not new to IR: 666 events in 1987 & 7,722 events in 2006(64% in Iraq) 2. “New”Aspects: Use of technology with global scope, cyber-terrorism, increase in casualties • i.e. Osama Bin Laden &Al Qaeda 1. Native of a wealthy family in SaudiArabia. Gained military stripes in Afghanistan: Soviet invades Afghanistan, the Mujahedeen was the rebel group that the Soviets were trying to put down and was also supported by the US. Bin Laden gained political motive by supporting and going toAfghanistan. Portion of the Mujahedeen morphs into Taliban 2. Fatwa 1998: Bin Laden issues a Fatwa(religious statement usually made only by religious leader): -AllAmericans are legitimate targets because 1) US support for Israel 2) US is killing citizens in Iraq (economic sanctions) 3) US has stained the holy grounds of Islam by putting troops in SaudiArabia • 1998 strikes in US embassies in Kenya & Tanzania: impressive because bombs went off simultaneously, Bin Laden makes his international mark inAl Qaeda • 2000 Strikes in Yemen U.S.S. Cole & 9/11 • May 1, 2011-Abbottabad Killing of Osama Articles − Robert Pape (2002) “The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism o Tamils in Sri Lanka: most likely group to carry out suicide terrorism • Success: always leads to a success for terrorists, as they get some of the things they want in negotiations/bargaining • Targets: democracies who are occupying another state • Strategic: suicide comes in waves, acting under leadership and the terrorist organization is guided about when/where − Byman (2006): Does Israel’s strategy of targeted killings work? • Killing of SheikhAhmed Yassin 3/22/2004: Israel sent bomb in his house and killed him, his daughter • From 2000-2005, 203 Palestinian “terrorists” killed by Israel • “Risks” -International Condemnation -Angers more Palestinians -Civilians are killed -Hamas recruits more easily -More terrorist strikes follow • “Benefits” -Eliminates Leaders: hurts terrorist organizations -“less” effective terrorist strikes on civilians Reading − Anonymous is not as much of a threat as people are worried about and we need to change our thought on them − Example: Branding o How do you market yourself? • Ethnics Groups, i.e. Palestinians can market themselves as the victims of a terrible country makes that world want to help, making it clear they are second class citizens of Israel • Religious Movements: Catholic church example • Terrorist Groups:Audience might be ethnic groups • IssueAdvocacy Groups: Brand themselves and target specific governments and organizations • MNCs: Must take into consideration cultural differences PS 280 October 10 John Mueller’s Overblown (2006): the threat of terrorism is overhyped and overblown − No terrorists in the US (notAl Qaeda, but there are homegrown types – like Timothy McVeigh) – ifAl Qaeda wanted to get here, it wouldn’t be that hard (could just sneak through Mexico) − Inaccurate predictions of forthcoming terrorism − Al Qaeda’s waning global support –Al Qaeda has been really damaged and is far weaker than ever before, so it’s not the threat that we once may have though − Unlikelihood of being attacked – odds of getting attacked are small and we shouldn’t really worry about it; likelihood of drowning in the bathtub is more likely than getting struck by a terrorist attack − Critiques of Homeland Security – much of what Homeland Security does is a waste, according to him; air marshals are a complete waste of money because the likelihood of that ever happening on an American aircraft is so small; believes we should invest in tings that could save lives like cancer research and highway automobile deaths Trends in World Conflict − 20 century lethality of warfare: 750 armed conflicts • WWII: 53 m; Mao: ~30 m; Stalin: ~15-23m − 37 armed conflicts in 2011 • 6 @ 1000 or more deaths − Lethality of terrorism – terrorism is getting worse because they’re more effective in their ability to be more effective − American militarism;Andrew Bacevich • Iraq,Afghanistan, Libya, Syria – since 1990 at the onset of Iraq, the US has been at war; we solve our problems through military might and we don’t even challenge that principle because we’re so used to it; we want a big military; most of us are divorced from understanding the military and that allowsAmerican politicians to use force without being questioned that intensely • Permanent state of war • Americans’1 value = consumerism – we need to have a global military presence to protect Amer
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