[PS 100] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (28 pages long!)

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PS 100
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Exam 3 study guide, PS 100 (Fall 2016), Prof. Ksiazkiewicz /51
Chapter 11 - International politics and the global community
Key terms from book
Balance of power- the maintenance of peace through the even distribution of power
among competing nations so that no single state or combination of states is dominant
Bipolarity- the distribution of power between 2 nation-states
Collective security- joining of countries into an organization to maintain international
peace and law; their collective strength deters or punishes aggression by member
nations; e.g.) United Nations
Domination- policy of exercising direct or indirect control, sometimes despotic, over
others (different connotation than hegemony)
Globalization- rapid and explosive increase in integrative international economic
activity-trade, investment, and banking; build on the twin pillars of capitalism and high-
tech communications
Hard power “hawkish”- military or economic influence; stands in contrast to soft power,
which involves less tangible elements, such as persuasion, political skill, and public
opinion
Hegemony-circumstance in which one nation-state has overwhelming, dominating power
Multilateralism- a pattern of foreign policy whereby groups of countries operate through
international organizations and engage in collective problem solving and problem
resolution; process of collective security; umbrella term; hand
Multipolarity- when power is distributed among several nation-states
Nongovernment organization (NGO)- a private international actor whose purpose and
activity parallel those of interest groups
Soft power “dovish”- influence exercising by less tangible means than raw power, such
as persuasion, public opinion, and political skill; stands in contrast to hard power, which
is the application of military or economic power
Figure 11.1: International Power Distribution Systems: Multipolar, Bipolar, and
Hegemonic (p. 302)
Key terms from lecture (11.2)
Anarchy- absence of government; no monopoly of violence; no easy way to enforce rule
of law; states are co-equal and sovereign; does not necessarily mean chaos
National interest- vital needs and fundamental interests of nations, i.e. security, liberty,
justice, and welfare, essential for independence, prosperity, and power; what’s good for
the nation as a whole in world affairs
Sphere of influence- regions in which a major power exerts influence on the domestic
politics of foreign countries
Example questions
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Exam 3 study guide, PS 100 (Fall 2016), Prof. Ksiazkiewicz /52
Label the three elements in this diagram (based on Figure 11.1): multipolar, bipolar,
hegemonic
op. 302
What does it mean for the international system to be anarchic?
orefer above for definition of anarchy
oanarchy does not necessarily mean it is chaos; there is a system, simply that each
state is sovereign (there is structure) and it is co-equal to the other
Why is the concept of national interest important for understanding how a nation will
behave in the international system?
orefer above for definition of national interest
obasically, they will act with respect to their national interest (and consequently
how that affects other countries and the international system as a whole)
oa nation will choose a policy based on balance of power, domination, or
multilateralism because it offers assurance of protecting the national interest
which is the central concern of leaders in international politics; leaders must
protect the fundamental interests of their nation: its freedom and independence
(values), its safety against foreign aggression or subversion (security), its
prosperity (welfare), and the rights and welfare of its people (liberty and justice)
Match each of the following time periods in international relations to the distribution of
power that most closely describes it: years immediately post-WWII, Cold War, post-Cold
War
o1. years immediately post-WWII (1945- 1947)- Hegemony (1) (US)
o2. Cold War- Bipolar (2); 1947-1991 (US, Soviet Union)
o3. post-Cold War (1991- whenever)— Multipolar (many) (Russia, US, Soviet
Union, etc.)
Which of these is an example of soft power (rather than hard power)?
osoft power- persuasion, public opinion, political skill
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