BIOS 230 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Brassica Oleracea, Arrector Pili Muscle, Thomas Robert Malthus

303 views12 pages
7 Feb 2017
School
Course
Professor

For unlimited access to Study Guides, a Grade+ subscription is required.

UIC
BIOS 230
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Lecture 1
What is evolution
Change through time
Biological evolution
- descent with modification (darwin)
-Any change in the heritable traits within a population across generations
Microevolution
Allele frequency changes over relatively short time spans
Macroevolution
Large evolutionary changes taking place over longer periods of time
How is evolution studied
What are the types of evidence that evolutionary biologists used to understand evolutionary
processes
Evidence for evolution
1) Fossils
2) Homology
3) Biogeography
4) Direct observation
5) Selective Breeding
6) Vestigial structures
Fossil: Any trace of an organism that lived in the past
Fossils have allowed us to piece together the history of life on earth
Fossil skeleton of the huge iceage deer called the irish elk, an extinct species
Tansitional fossils
Documenting the evolution of whales from ancestors witih legs
Archaeopteryx
Archaeopteryx, an extinct species with modern feathers and a dinosaur- like skeleton
Transitional fossil between dinosaur and birds
Had feathers and could fly or glide
Teeth, claws and body tail
Evidence for evolution
1) Fossils
2) Homology
a) Homologous structures
b) Deveolpmental homologies
c) molecular homologies
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Homology
Similarity resulting from inheritanace of traits from a common ancestor
Especially important evidence fro evolution when traits are modified fro different functions.
Mammalian forelimb adapted to different functions
The same bones in different mammals no matter what forelimb is adapted to it's function but it
has the SAME bones no matter how DIFFERENT it looks.
Developmental homoloties
Embryos from different vertebrates show many similaries early in development for example the
early embryos all have pharyngeal pouches and a tail
Molecular homologies
In almost every organism the same nucleotide triplets or codons specify the same amino acids
to eb incorporated into proteins
The universal genetic code is evidence that all life forms are universal and it is molecular
homology
Number of DNA nucleotide base differences in the cytochrome c gnee
Closeness of ancestry is reflected in the sequences of DNA and proteins. Organisms that more
recently shared a common ancestry have more similar molecules
Large number of base differences between humans and yeast
Small number of base differences between humans and pigs
Evidence for Biogeography
The geographic distribution of species on Earth - is often best explained by common ancestry
The distributions can tell where and how animals evolved.
Direct Evolution
Examples of Direct observation of evolution
Evolution of antibiotic resistant bacteria
Industrial melanism, peppered moth
Evolution of insecticide resistance in crop pests
Evolution of Italian wall lizards
Homology KEY IDEAS
1) The structures are similar
2) The development is similar
3) The relationships to features are similar.
MUST HAVE COMMON ANCESTOR
In general, the relatedness of groups of organisms is reflected in the similarity of their DNA
sequences
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class