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Final

BIO 148 Final: BIO 152 Final Exam Review


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO 148
Professor
Jones
Study Guide
Final

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1
Unit 1: Unity of Life and the Process of Science
Learning Objectives
Cole Feeney
September, 2015
You should be able to:
Describe the shared characteristics of living organisms.
1. Energy and Matter
Energy flows thru the environment
o Part 1: Photosynthesis Energy coming in from the sun, stored in chemical
compounds
o Part 2: Cellular Respiration Taking energy in chemical bongs and using for
cellular work
Matter cycles thru the environment
Why not reversed? Conservation of mass and laws of thermodynamics aka energy is
constantly coming in and transferring but lose a little bit of energy when transferred (heat
energy) and matter usually stays the same
2. Cells
Cell Theory
1. All organisms are made of one or more cells
2. Cells are the basic structural unit of all living things
3. All cells come from other cells
Common features of cells
1. Have DNA in chromosomes
2. Ribosomes = protein factories (do most of things in cell)
3. Cytoplasm = interior liquid (not just water)
4. Cell membrane = outer boundary
Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes
o Eukaryotes Animals, plants, fungi and protists. Nucleus. Membrane-bound organelles
(mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum
o Prokaryotes Bacteria & archea. No nucleus (chromosomes in nucleoid, have ribosomes,
cellular respiration, no special cells to facilitate). No membrane-bound organelles. Much
smaller (cellular respiration)
3. Replication
Spontaneous Generation Hypothesis: Cells arise spontaneously from nonliving materials
All-Cells-From-Cells Hypothesis: Cells are produced only when preexisting cells grow and
divide
4. Information
Flow of information thru cell
o Genes are recipes for proteins
Genes are information
Proteins do work
o Central Dogma
DNA protein
mRNA protein
5. Evolution
Phylogenetic trees illustrate evolutionary relationships
o Show hypothesis of relationship to organism
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2
Tips show decedents
Branches show ancestors
New features can be shown to arise
o Clade = all of a group descended from one ancestor
Making a tree of life
o Ribosome
Cellular structure made of proteins and rRNA
Makes proteins, so very slow rate of evolution
All organisms have them
o Eukaryotes are one clade
Multicellular organisms are not one clade but w/i the protists
o Prokaryotes are not one clade
Some prokaryotes (Archaea) are as different from bacteria as eukaryotes
o 3 Domains
Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya
6. Key Points:
Life has all of the following characteristics:
o Transforms energy and chemicals
o Made of one or more cells
o Contain information in the form of genes
o Replicates itself
o Are products of evolution
No one characteristic is the definition of life
Not all can be always easily observed
Identify whether something is an organism or inanimate matter based on experimental information.
Matter that makes up living organisms obeys the same physical and chemical laws that inanimate
matter does BUT 3 main properties separate them
Property 1: Living organisms exhibit a high degree of chemical complexity and organization
o Thousands of different molecules make up a single cell’s intricate internal structure
o Thousands of other molecules allow the cell to perform its general and specific functions in
such a way that the life of the organism continues
o Biomolecules: chemicals present in all living things
Property 2: Living organisms extract, transform and use energy from their environment
o Usually obtained in the form of chemical nutrients/sunlight
o Energy allows organisms to build & maintain intricate structure
o Energy allows organisms to do mechanical, chemical, osmotic and other types of work
o Inanimate matter does not use energy to maintain structure or do work (tends to move
towards greater disorder until equilibrium with the surroundings is achieved)
o Bioenergetics: the study of the energy transformations and exchanges on which all living
organisms depend
o Living organisms are open systems they exchange both matter and energy with their
surroundings
o Living organisms are not at equilibrium with their surroundings to maintain critical
difference organisms must constantly extract/use energy from sunlight and/or food to build
complex molecules
Property 3: Living organisms have the capacity for precise self-replication and self-assembly
o This occurs at:
The molecular level replication of DNA
The cellular level mitosis, meiosis
The organismal level sexual reproduction
o Almost always occurs with near perfect fidelity
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3
o Key is DNA, the genetic material
Define evolution.
Evolution: the theory that all organisms on Earth are related by common ancestry and that they have
changed over time
Any change in the genetic characteristics of a population over time
Decent with modification
The idea that species today are different from their ancestors
A theory, supported by many lines of evidence
Occurs in a population (versus the individual)
Evolution is the outcome of natural selection
Discuss the factors involved in natural selection as a mechanism of evolution.
Natural selection: Individuals with certain traits produce more surviving offspring than individuals
without those traits, often leading to change in genetic makeup of the population
Steps of natural selection
1. Variation in traits in the population
o Traits are inherited
o Not all individuals exactly the same
2. Organisms make more offspring than the environment can support
o Not everybody can survive and reproduce
o If nothing died there would be no resources left
3. There is a struggle to survive and reproduce
o Certain traits in some circumstances will provide an advantage to survival and
reproduction
o Not guaranteed but advantage or disadvantage
4. The survivors reproduce, establishing a new generation with traits inherited from survivors
o The traits that increase likelihood of survival & reproduction are more abundant than in
1st generation
o Survivors reproduced and new generation has beneficial traits, these traits become more
abundant in the following generations
Necessary conditions:
o Traits cannot all be the same difference in individuals
o Traits must be inherited learned and acquired characteristics
o Struggle for survival If everybody lives and reproduces, there is no selection
Two conditions of natural selection (natural selection occurs when):
1. Individuals differ from each other for heritable traits
2. In a specific environment, individuals with certain traits tend to survive or reproduce
better than individuals with other traits
One mechanism of evolution
Occurs in individuals (versus the population)
Natural selection can act only on heritable variation. Traits acquired during the lifetime of an
individual organism will not be passed onto offspring. Even if the individual has high fitness and
produces many surviving offspring, non-heritable traits that the individual has acquired over a life
time will not be passed on to the offspring
Explain the statement “Natural selection acts on individuals. Evolution occurs in populations.”
Natural selection’s effect on individuals increases the frequency of favorable traits in populations
over time; selection acts on individuals, but it is the population that evolves
The Game
o Individuals win (reproduce) or lose (die)
o Population is changed
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find more resources at oneclass.com
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