BIOLOGY 172 Quiz: SLC BIO 225 SP17 EXAM 2 NOTES

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOLOGY 172
Professor
Lyle Simmons
Semester
Spring

Description
Digestive System Digestion = break down of complex molecules into monomeric forms We are heterotrophic since we cant synthesize our own food for energynutrients Nutrient consists of organic carbon (carbs andor fat) and organic nitrogen (amino acids) that can be converted into organic molecules required to maintain biological activities Energy Budget: consumption of food matches metabolic demand o Overnourishment: energy expenditure is less than choleric (calorie) intake liver and muscle store glucose as glycogen excess energy stored as fat o Undernourishment: choleric intake is less than energy utilization liver glycogen muscle glycogen fat o Malnutrition: deficient in essential nutrients o today, a lot of people are both undernourished AND malnourished since they consume more calories than needed but not all nutrients needed Essential nutrients: nutrients obtained only by eating food o 10 essential amino acids o omega3 and omega6 fatty acids o vitamins: fat soluble = A,D, E K (deposited in adipose tissue) water soluble = B complex C (excess excreted in urine) o minerals: Ca++ for bones and for second messenger, K+ for Na+K+ pump, C;, Fe for hemoglobin gas transport iodine for T3T4 synthesis The process of digestion : o 1) Mechanical fragmentation (chewing food into smaller pieces to increase relative surface area of food, allowing more exposure to digestive juices) Begins in mouth via chewing Stomach has longitudinal muscles, transverse muscles oblique muscles to crush food in all direction = increased surface area of food Small intestine has longitudinal muscles, transverse muscles but NOT oblique muscles, allowing food to move forward o 2) Enzymatic digestion of macromolecules monomeric forms (location of enzymatic activity differs) Comparmentalized digestive tract: mouth pharynx esophagus stomach small intestine large intestine anus o allows more ingestion before complete digestion of prior meals o villi and microvilli of digestive tract increases surface area o each villus is rich in blood supply to absorbed nutrients can enter blood o lacteal = beginning of lymphatic systems lymph vessels bloodvascular system liver lymphatic system allows maintenance of blood pressure Carbohydrate Digestion: mouth and small intestine o amylase enzyme in saliva secreted by salivary glands within mouth cavity starch and glycogen oligosaccharides disaccharides
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