BIOLOGY 172 Study Guide - Winter 2019, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Wood, Wayne Shorter, Water

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Published on 14 Feb 2019
School
U of M
Department
Biology
Course
BIOLOGY 172
Professor
BIOLOGY 172
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NOTES
Intro Lecture: January 9th
Evolution explains both the unity and the diversity of life.
Unity of Life
Common properties of living things
Order
Energy utilization
Response to environment
Reproduction
Evolve
READING NOTES (LECTURE 1)
Observation: the act of viewing the world around us
Observations and the questions that they rise allow us to propose tentative explanatins, or
hypotheses
Hypotheses explain the behavior we observed but they may or may not be correct
Hypothesis makes predictions, we can test them
Hypothesis is a statement that makes predictions about observations not
yet made or yet run.
Experimentation: disciplined and controlled way of asking and answering questions about the
world in an unbiased matter
Darwin
Argued that life has evolved over time by means of natural selection
Controlled Experiment
Several groups to be tested, keeping the conditions and setup as similar as possible from
one group to the next and then there is a variable introduced (test group)
Group where the researcher does not introduce the variable (control group)
Scientific Method
Observations → hypothesis → predictions → experiments or new observations
→ theory
A deliberate and cafeful way of asking questions about the unknown
We make observations, collect field or laboratory samples, and design and carry
out experiments or analyses to make sense of things we initially do not
understand.
If results are consistent over many experiments on many related hypotheses, then the
hypothesis becomes a theory.
Theory: a general explanation of the world supported by a large body of
experiments and observations
Living Organisms
Complexity, with precise spatial organization on several scales
The ability to change in response to the environment
The ability to reproduce
The capacity to evolve
Carbon is the chemical backbone of life
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Law of Thermodynamics determine how living organisms are able to do work and maintain their
spatial organization
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy can not be created or destroyed, only transformed from one form to
another
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Degree of disorder (number of possible positions) in the universe tends to
increase
Addition of energy, increases the order of the system
The amount of disorder is entropy
Heat corresponds to the motion of small molecules (greater heat, greater the motion, and
the greater the motion, the greater the degree of disorder)
Cell: simplest entity that can exist as an independent unit of life
Ability to store and transmit information
Organisms require an accessible and reliable archive of information that helps
determine their structure and metabolic activities
Ability to reproduce
Must be able to reproduce and copy their information rapidly and acurrately
The information archive in all cells is DNA (deozyribonucleic acid)
Double stranded helix
Arrangement of the molecular subunits makes DNA special
Information in DNA is important for the formation of proteins
Proteins are the key structural and functional molecules
that do the work of the cell
How does DNA lead to the synthesis of proteins?
Exsisting proteins create a copy of DNA’s information called RNA (ribonucleic
acid)
Transcription: the synthesis of RNA from a DNA molecule
Describes the copying of informaton from one form into another
Translation: converts information stored in the language of nucleic acids to
information in the language of proteins
Central Dogma of biology: basic flow of information in a celle
Gene: the DNA sequence that corresponds to a specific protein product
DNA also has the ability to reproduce
Replication: each strand of the double helix serves as a template for a new strand
Precise and accurate because mistakes in the cell’s information can be
lethal to the cell
Mutations: lead to death of the cell or variations that underlie the
diversity of life and process of evolution
Cells also include plasma membranes, which separate the living materian within the cell
from the nonliving environment
Cells also have internal membranes
Nucleus: houses the cell’s DNA
Space outside the nucelus is the cytoplasm
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Cells without a nucleus: prokaryotes
Many live as single celled organisms
First cells (4 bya) were prokaryotic
Cells with a nucleus: eukaryotes
2 billion years ago
Include animals,plants, fungi, protists (single celled microorganisms)
Three Domains of Life
Bacteria
Prokaryotes because they lack a nucleus
Eukarya
Archaea
Also prokaryotes as they lack a nucleus
Cells have the ability to harness energy form the environment
Metabolism: the cemical reactions by which cells convert energy from one form
to another and build and break down molecules
Release energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Allows cells to carry out work
Viruses are not the smallest unit of life because they cannot harness energy from the
environment
They require a cell to replicate
Evolution: change over time
Natural selection
The variants best suited for growth and reproduction in a given environment will
contribute disproportionately to the overall next generation
Environmental variation
Genetic variation (differences in genetic material that is transmitted from
parent to offspring)
Fertilization can product unique combinatins of genes in sexual
organisms
Ultimately rises from genetic mutations
Errors during replication
Environmental factors that damage DNA
New species arise by the divergence of populations through time from a common
ancestor
Experiments can be used to show evolution over time
Lecture 2: January 11th, 2019
Quiz #1 due Monday, January 14th
Some melanized fungi grow better in the presence of radiation (use gamma rays for energy)
Melanin could be shielding or converting it to chemical energy
Another process that harvest energy from electromagnetic spectrum→
photosynthesis
This shows the two major aspects of Biology
The Unity of Life
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