[INTLSTD 101] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 19 pages long Study Guide!

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U of M
INTLSTD 101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Notes 1/17/17
Net migration flows
o People and their labor
3% of the world is on the move
640 million would LIKE to migrate permanently
for 23% US is the preferred destination
1 million receive legal permanent resident status in US annually
Why Do Individuals Migrate Internationally?
Economic necessity
Political instability
Ethnic instability
Leaving for a better life
Jobs
Social mobility
Religious conflict
Supply + Demand + Social Networks = Size of an international migration
Authorized
Or unauthorized
Government seeks to influence both the characteristics or numbers of arrivals
Striking a balance:
National security vs. migrants’ rights
o Central policy challenge of US
Enforcement First:
Border enforcement
Detaining & removing non-citizens
Visa requirements
Workplace enforcement
Data sharing on unauthorized migrants between branches of government
US spends more money on border enforcement than any other agency
US detains more people than it has in all federal prisons combined
Consequences:
Fewer opportunities to migrate legally, people are desperate and migrate anyways
Sometimes they can only cross with crazy risks
o “Coffin load” people lay down in the engine compartment of a car just to cross
the border
o People will do anything to cross that border
Now they have X-rays to see through trucks
Human Smuggling:
The facilitation, transportation, or attempted transportation of a person or persons across
an international border, in violation of one or more countries’ laws
Foreign born population is much higher now than 1900
The more militarized the border is, the more people will try to cross
o Can’t move freely, so very high population of undocumented people
Overall Trends:
Surge of unaccompanied minors in family units
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o Children are extremely vulnerable to exploitation parents think the children
will be able to pay off the debt of the price of smuggling in
Decline in adult population
Response to “Surge”
Problem:
o rumors that families had permission to stay
o US Border Patrol overwhelmed with volume of people
o Courts overwhelmed with number of cases
Solution:
Information campaign to dispel myths in countries of origin
Open additional consulates in countries of origin to process asylum claims, expanded
countries of origin
DOJ and DOS opened special court dockets to decide cases, using skype to process more
quickly
China “trade model” preserve relationships, very few human rights abuses, extremely
expensive
Post-Soviet “natural resource model”
Balkans “violent entrepreneur model” primarily women being traded into sexual slavery,
family groups manage the profits from this, violations of human rights, corruption law
enforcement officers were underpaid and this was a way to supplement their income
American “pimp model” female sexual trafficking, very vulnerable women, psychological
techniques
ISIS “warmonger model”
Human Trafficking:
Act:
o Recruitment
o Transport
o Transfer
o Harboring
o Receipt
Means:
o Threat
o Use of force
o Abduction
o Coercion
o Fraud
Purpose:
o Exploitation
o Prostitution
o Forced labor
o Removal or organs
How is trafficking different from smuggling?
1. Movement across a border
2. Nature of relationship
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