PHYSICS 235- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 24 pages long!)

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Toby Eckhause

[PHYSICS 235] Comprehensive spring guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at Understanding Arabs, Margaret K. Nydell The Levant: Identify countries of the Eastern Mediterranean: Lebanon, Syria, and Palestine; do not conform to geography or history, drawn by Britain and France after World War I Lebanon -4 million people -history of commercial and maritime importance -religious diversity and social class in Lebanon created barriers to social integration -Official language: Arabic; the educated spoke French, English, or both -Religious tensions between the Christians (25-43%) and Muslims (Sunnis 25% and Shias 35%) -3rd redenomination Druze religion (Shia Islam); affected government stability -refugees from Pakistan --> refugee citizenship; affect religious stability (and government) Syria -Government: secular, authoritarian -currently experiencing upheaval close to civil war -90% Muslim (74% Sunni, the rest Shias and Ismailis), 7% Christians, 3% Druze -densely populated because only half of the land is habitable -Syrian economy: agricultural production, oil, phosphates, and textile Palestinian Territories -Israel-Palestine issue -98% Sunni Muslim, 2% Christian -Economy not self-sustaining: lack of access to land in Israeli-controlled areas, import and export restrictions, and little private sector growth; heavily relies on donor aid from U.S, European Union, Japan… -West Bank: 12% agriculture, 2% industry, 65% services -Gaza: 12% agriculture (not reliable), 5% industry, 83% services -East Jerusalem: Not under Palestinian control Jordan -Created under British mandate after WWI  independence in 1946 -populated by Palestinians and Jordanians (10% Bedouins) -Government is moderate and pro-Western -majority Sunni Muslim, 6% Christian (not a divisive issue due to King Abdullah) -constitutional monarchy with a parliament -Jordanian demonstrations in 2011: protesting government corruption, rising prices, rampant poverty, and high unemployment -smallest economies in the Arab world: poor in natural resources, water shortages -depend on foreign aid, tourism, industry, agriculture, exports such as uranium and oil shale -location between Israel and Iraq is a disadvantage -good educational system find more resources at
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